Conditions & Topics (A - Z)
Select from the alphabetical list to find the symptom or condition you're looking for.
Relating to the nose.
Nasal/Oral Gastic Tube
Small flexible tube that is passed either through the mouth (oral) or through the nose (nasal) and into the stomach. It is often times used to either drain air and fluid out of the stomach, or it is used to provide liquid food and/or medicine into the stomach.
A small rounded piece of the lining of the nose that can extend into the passages of the nose.
Teeth that are present when an infant is born.
A feeling of needing to vomit (throw-up).
When tissue in an organ dies due to lack of blood supply.
Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)
A serious intestinal illness that may affect underweight or premature infants, and occurs when part of the intestine is damaged or destroyed by a bacterial infection.
Uses a thin needle and syringe to collect tissue or drain a lump after using a local anesthetic.
A small needle is inserted into the abnormal area in almost any part of the body, guided by imaging techniques, to obtain a tissue biopsy. This type of biopsy can provide a diagnosis without surgical intervention. An example of this procedure is called the needle breast biopsy.
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS)
A term for a group of problems a baby experiences when withdrawing from drug use by the mother during pregnancy.
Neonatal Developmental Follow-up Program
Provides follow-up care for babies who need special care after birth, are at risk for developmental delays or have ongoing medical problems. This program is very important during the child's first three years - the time when he or she is growing rapidly and learning a lot of new skills. Parents or physicians can refer a baby to the program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin.
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)
An intensive care unit for infants or neonates with special needs. This is a nursery equipped to care for babies with serious health problems. It is staffed by (but not limited to) neonatologists, nurses and respiratory therapists, with special training and experience. Children's Hospital of Wisconsin's NICU is the most advanced in Wisconsin.
Refers to a newborn from birth to 28 days of age.
A doctor who, through extra years of training, has specialized in the care, diagnosis, and treatment of sick newborns with special needs.
A sub-specialty of medicine defined as the care of the ill or premature newborn infant. It is a boarded, hospital-based subspecialty of pediatrics. Most neonatal medicine is practiced in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The principal patients of neonatologists are newborn infants ill or requiring special medical care because of prematurity, low birth weight (intrauterine growth retardation or congenital malformations (birth defects)).
Surgical removal of the kidney.
A physician who specializes in diseases of the kidneys.
The medical specialty concerned with diseases of the kidneys.
A condition characterized by high levels of protein in the urine, low levels of protein in the blood, tissue swelling and high cholesterol.
Surgical removal of the kidney and ureter.
Embryonic tissue that develops into the baby's brain and spinal cord and the skull and bones of the spinal column.
Cancer occurring in the nerve cells.
A broad term that describes a group of neurologic (brain) disorders. These diseases are life-long conditions that causes tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin and skeletal bones. The most common symptoms in children with these diseases is the unique changes that can be found on the skin. The three most common types of neurocutaneous syndromes are tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis (NF) and Sturge-Weber disease.
A genetic condition that affects the peripheral nerves that causes changes to occur in the skin, called café-au-lait spots.
Neurofibromatosis (NF) Clinic
The Neurofibromatosis (NF) Clinic at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin is the only NF clinic in the state recognized by the National NF Foundation. Clinic staff follow more than 200 children with neurofibromatosis.
A bladder disorder that can be caused by a tumor or other condition of the nervous system. It is also known as a neuropathic bladder.
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin's pediatric neurology program provides diagnosis and treatment for children with a wide range of neurological disorders. In addition to the General Neurology Clinic, a number of subspecialty clinics are held regularly to serve children needing specialized care.
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin's pediatric neuromuscular program offers a comprehensive approach to the diagnosis and management of all types of motor disorders, including muscular dystrophy.
A bladder disorder that can be caused by a tumor or other condition of the nervous system. It is also known as a neurogenic bladder.
The Neuroscience Center, ranked number 28 by U.S.News and World Report, has team members who specialize in providing advanced diagnosis and treatment for children with a wide range of conditions affecting the neurological system.
A procedure that uses ultra high-frequency sound waves that enable the physician to analyze blood flow.
A surgeon who specializes in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; also coordinates all surgical interventions of head abnormalities with the craniofacial surgeons (i.e., craniosynostosis).
When people think about neurosurgery, they usually think of brain tumors, but brain tumors are just a small part of the specialty for Children's Hospital of Wisconsin pediatric neurosurgery staff.
Chemicals in the brain that regulate other chemicals in the brain.
Small skin marks caused by pigment-producing cells in the skin. It is also known as moles.
Permanent flat, pink, red or purple marks on the skin. It is also known as port-wine stains.
A test done on every baby born in the United States within the first few days of life, to look for treatable, inherited, metabolic disorders.
NEW (Nutrition, Exercise and Weight Management) KidsTM Program
The NEW KidsTM Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin is geared toward a holistic treatment of pediatric overweight. It coordinates efforts of nurses, nurse practitioners, psychologists, dietitians, exercise physiologists, physical therapists and physicians.
An operation that helps treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The fundus (top of the stomach) is pulled around the esophagus and sewn. This helps prevent food from moving back from the stomach into the esophagus by creating a muscular band at the top of the stomach, which becomes tighter as the stomach fills up.
Nitric Oxide Therapy
A type of assisted ventilation that uses nitric oxide to relax the walls of the blood vessels of the lungs. This relaxation assists with gas exchange (carbon dioxide and oxygen). Used especially to treat persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, which is a serious condition that causes high pressure in the arteries supplying blood to the lungs.
Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
Is a chemical compound with chemical formula N2O. Under room conditions it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant slightly sweet odor. It is commonly known as "laughing gas" due to the exhilarating effects of inhaling it, and because it can cause spontaneous laughter in some users. It is used in surgery and dentistry for its anaesthetic and analgesic effects. Nitrous oxide is present in the atmosphere where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. It is also known as dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide.
Unintentional release of semen while sleeping. It is also known as wet dreams.
A solid, raised bump. (Also referred to as an "overactive nodule" in thyroid.) It is also known as a papule.
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
Hearing loss that is caused either by a one-time or repeated exposure to very loud sound or sounds at various loudness levels over an extended period of time.
A non-Hodgkin's disease in which the cells are undifferentiated and diffuse. This has also been referred to as small non-cleaved cells. Non-Burkitt's lymphoma accounts for about 40 to 50 percent of the cases and is usually characterized by a large abdominal tumor and may have bone marrow and central nervous system involvement. It is also known as Burkitt's lymphoma.
A type of lymphoma, a cancer in the lymphatic system; causes the cells in the lymphatic system to abnormally reproduce, eventually causing tumors to grow. Non-Hodgkin's disease cells can also spread to other organs.
Is cancer in the lymphatic system. Sixty percent of lymphomas are non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system and functions to fight disease and infections.
The most common severe, life-threatening problem of severe edema (swelling) in the fetus and newborn; can result when diseases or complications interfere with the baby's ability to manage fluid.
A problem with the eye that results in a decrease in vision. These problems cannot be corrected with eyeglasses alone.
Non-Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep
Non-REM has 4 stages:
- Stage 1 - drowsiness - eyes droop, may open and close, dozing.
- Stage 2 - light sleep - the baby moves and may startle or jump with sounds.
- Stage 3 - deep sleep - the baby is quiet and does not move.
- Stage 4 - very deep sleep - the baby is quiet and does not move.
A baby enters stage 1 at the beginning of the sleep cycle, then moves into stage 2, then 3, then 4, then back to 3, then 2, then to Rapid Eye Movement (REM). These cycles may occur several times during sleep. Babies may awaken as they pass from deep sleep to light sleep and may have difficulty going back to sleep in the first few months.
A non-invasive test performed prenatally after 28 weeks gestation. This test involves attaching two belts around the mother's abdomen, one to monitor the baby's heart rate and one to monitor uterine contractions. The baby's heart rate is monitored for how it reacts to movement and/or uterine contractions. The fetal heart should increase with activity and decrease with rest.
An error in cell division where the chromosomes fail to divide up properly, so that both copies of a given chromosomal pair pass to the same egg or sperm cell.
A diagnostic effort or treatment that does not require entering the body or puncturing the skin.
Not to eat or drink.
A specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive substances to examine organ function and structure.
Nurse Team Coordinator
A registered nurse who combines experience in pediatric nursing with specialization in the care of your child, and acts as liaison between your family and the craniofacial team.
A condition common in children younger than 4 years of age in which the radius (one of the bones of the forearm) slips out of place from its attachment to the elbow joint.
Nutrition Counseling Services
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin dietitians provide a broad range of medical nutrition therapies and nutrition education for specific medical conditions in various clinics.