Conditions & Topics (A - Z)
Select from the alphabetical list to find the symptom or condition you're looking for.
Ticks that spread lyme disease can also spread a blood-borne illness called babesiosis. The disease, which causes the destruction of red blood cells that can lead to moderate to severe anemia, is fatal in approximately 5 percent of cases. In addition, the disease can be transmitted through the blood supply. Symptoms of babesiosis include mild flu-like symptoms, such as aches and fever for about a week. The severity of symptoms increase with age and the status of a person's immune system. Always consult your physician for more information.
When the sole of the foot is firmly stroked, the big toe bends back toward the top of the foot and the other toes fan out. This is a normal reflex up to about 2 years of age.
Baclofen is a medication that can be taken orally or released through a surgically implanted pump (called an intrathecal baclofen pump) into the spinal cord in patients with spasticity. It is one of many treatments available in the Tone Management and Mobility Program.
A bacterial infection of the valves and interior surfaces of the heart. It is also known as endocarditis.
Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)
A mild infection in the vagina typically characterized by a discharge that may be clear or colored, light or heavy, that may have a fishy smell especially after sexual intercourse. It is an overgrowth of bacteria that are normal to the vagina. It is not known why these normal bacteria will sometimes cause a problem. Approximately half of women with BV have no symptoms. Antibiotics (oral or vaginal creams) are given for treatment once the diagnosis has been made. BV may cause premature labor, premature birth, infection of the amniotic fluid and infection of the uterus after delivery. Therefore it is important to screen for it as part of routine prenatal care.
Bag of Water
Refers to the sac that contains the amniotic fluid and the baby inside the mother's uterus.
Biological system that enables individuals to know where their bodies are in the environment and to maintain a desired position; normal balance depends on information from the labyrinth in the inner ear, and from other senses such as sight and touch, as well as from muscle movement.
Ball-and-Socket Joints (i.e. Shoulder and Hip Joints)
Allow backward, forward, sideways and rotating movements.
A procedure usually done in the cardiac catheterization laboratory that uses a catheter (tube) with a balloon in the tip to open up a narrowed valve or blood vessel. It is also known as angiography.
A liquid used to coat the inside of organs so they will show up on an x-ray.
A procedure done to evaluate the large intestine for abnormalities. A fluid called barium that shows up well on x-rays is given into the rectum as an enema. An x-ray of the abdomen shows strictures (narrowed areas), obstructions (blockages), and other problems.
A type of diagnostic x-ray in which barium is used to diagnose abnormalities of the digestive tract. Barium enema, barium small-bowel enema, and barium swallow are types of barium x-rays. It is also known as upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) series.
A condition in which normal cells that line the esophagus, called squamous cells, turn into abnormal cells, called specialized columnar cells. Damage to the lining of the esophagus causes the cells to change; often occurs with long-term acid reflux.
These cells are found in the outer layer of skin. Basal cells are responsible for producing the squamous cells in the skin.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
The most common form of skin cancer, characterized by small, shiny, raised bumps on the skin that are fragile and often bleed.
Bottom portion of lower lobes, located just above the diaphragm.
Basilar Skull Fracture
Skull fracture that is the most serious type of skull fracture, and involves a break in the bone at the base of the skull. Children with this type of fracture frequently have bruises around their eyes and a bruise behind their ear. They may also have clear fluid draining from their nose or ears due to a tear in part of the covering of the brain. These children require close observation in the hospital.
Rare grouping of birth defects, seen more often in females than males. Anomalies seen may include: small head with a large fontanel or soft spot; large tongue; prominent eyes; jaw projected forward which causes problems with closing mouth; low blood sugars; high red blood cell (RBC) count.
Includes mental health problems with a focus on behaviors that both identify emotional problems and create interpersonal and social problems for children and adolescents in the course of their development. It is also known as disruptive behavior disorders.
A screening test used in infants to observe their behavior in response to certain sounds. Additional testing may be necessary.
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin staff realizes the pain a family endures when a child dies and understands many bereaved parents have benefited by having someone walk with them as they embark on their journey of grief. The Bereavement Program is part of the Family Services Department of Children's Hospital. It serves families who have experienced the death of a child at the hospital.
An external device designed to support pediatric patients of all age groups, from newborns to teenagers, who are awaiting heart transplant.
A medication that limits the activity of epinephrine (a hormone that increases blood pressure).
Thalassemia is an inherited disorder that affects the production of normal hemoglobin (a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body). Thalassemia includes a number of different forms of anemia. The severity and type of anemia depends upon the number of genes that are affected. Beta thalassemia is caused by mutations in the beta chain of the hemoglobin molecule. It is also known as cooley's anemia.
A valve that has two leaflets.
Affecting both sides.
A digestive fluid made by the liver and stored in the gallbladder which helps digest fats.
Tubes that take bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine to aid in digestion.
Bile ducts do not have normal openings, preventing bile from leaving the liver. This causes jaundice (a yellow skin color) and liver damage known as cirrhosis. Biliary atresia is a birth defect.
A normal substance produced when red blood cells come to the end of their life span and break down. Bilirubin gives bile its yellow-green color. Too much bilirubin in the body causes jaundice.
A destructive pattern of excessively overeating.
Binge Eating Disorder
A disorder that resembles bulimia nervosa and is characterized by episodes of uncontrolled eating (or bingeing). It differs from bulimia, however, because its sufferers do not purge their bodies of the excess food, via vomiting, laxative abuse, or diuretic abuse.
A destructive pattern of excessively overeating.
The ability to use both eyes at once.
A condition resulting from an enzyme dysfunction or deficiency.
Biochemical Genetic Testing
A test to assess the functioning of specific enzymes in the body.
Biologic Response Modifiers
Substances that boost the body's immune system to fight against cancer (i.e., interferon). It is also known as biologic therapy.
Substances that boost the body's immune system to fight against cancer (i.e., interferon). It is also known as biologic response modifiers.
An ultrasound study that monitors amniotic fluid volume, the baby's breathing movements and movements of the extremities and non-stress test result. With ultrasound we can do a Doppler flow study of the umbilical arterial blood flow from the placenta to the fetus, which assists in assessment of fetal well being.
A procedure in which tissue samples are removed from the body for microscopic examination to establish a diagnosis.
Biopsy Of The Tumor
A procedure in which a sample of tissue is removed from the tumor and examined under a microscope. Biopsies may be necessary for a diagnosis, since there are different types of cancer.
An inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of the biotinidase enzyme needed to metabolize a B vitamin.
Classified as a type of affective disorder (or mood disorder) that goes beyond the day's ordinary ups and downs. Manic depression is characterized by periodic episodes of extreme elation, elevated mood or irritability (also called mania) countered by periodic, classic depressive symptoms. It is also known as manic depression.
The passageway through which fluid passes out of the body during menstrual periods. The vagina connects the cervix (the opening of the womb, or uterus) and the vulva (the external genitalia). It is also known as the vagina.
A physical abnormality present at birth.
Abnormality of the skin that is present at birth or shortly afterward.
Birthmarks and Vascular Malformations Program
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin is one of the leading pediatric hospitals in the diagnosis, research and treatment of birthmarks and vascular malformations in the country. Pediatric dermatologists diagnose and treat many types of birthmarks.
A triangle-shaped, hollow organ located in the lower abdomen that holds urine.
Occurs when the urethral opening is in an abnormal location. In males, the opening is usually on the topside of the penis and not the tip. It is also known as epispadias and exstrophy of the bladder and is treated in the Urology Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin.
Creates a pathway for blood to reach the lungs. A connection is made between the first artery that branches off the aorta (called the right subclavian artery) and the right pulmonary artery.
Immature blood cells.
A fluid-filled bump.
The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.
Transmission of an infection through contact with infected blood, such as when sharing hypodermic needles.
Blood and Marrow Transplant Program
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin pioneered blood and bone marrow transplants in children in Wisconsin in 1980. Now the program is internationally recognized and consistently achieves survival rates statistically above the national average. We treat infants and children with blood disorders, childhood cancer, and cancer and other diseases affecting the bone marrow.
The process that takes place in a laboratory to ensure that the donated blood or blood products are safe before they are used for blood transfusions or other medical procedures.
A thick, gelled mass of blood.
Blood Clot Filters
A small filter is inserted into a blood clot to catch and break up blood clots.
A blood sample taken from an artery that measures the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the bloodstream, as well as the acidity or pH of the blood.
The fluid part of blood that contains nutrients, glucose, proteins, minerals, enzymes, and other substances.
Blood Pressure (BP)
The force or pressure exerted by the heart when pumping blood; the pressure of blood in the arteries.
Blood Pressure Cuff
A device usually placed around the upper portion of the arm to measure blood pressure.
Blood Pressure Monitor
Blood pressure is measured using a cuff placed on your child's arm or leg. Periodically, a blood pressure monitor pumps up the cuff and measures the blood pressure. Some children need continuous blood pressure monitoring. This can be done using a small catheter (small tube) in one of your child's arteries.
A type of diaphragmatic hernia (DH) which involves an opening on the left side of the diaphragm. The stomach and intestines usually move up into the chest cavity.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
A measure to determine the amount of body fat and amount of lean body mass.
Tender, swollen areas that form around hair follicles.
Process of falling in love with a newborn baby.
A transplant of bone taken from one area to another area.
The soft, spongy tissue found inside bones. It is the site of development and storage of about 95 percent of the body's blood cells.
Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy
The marrow may be removed by aspiration or a needle biopsy under local anesthesia. In aspiration biopsy, a fluid specimen is removed from the bone marrow. In a needle biopsy, marrow cells (not fluid) are removed. These methods are often used together.
Bone Marrow Harvest
Bone marrow harvesting involves collecting stem cells with a needle placed into the soft center of the bone, the marrow. Most sites used for bone marrow harvesting are located in the hip bones and the sternum. The procedure takes place in the operating room. The donor will be anesthetized during the harvest and will not feel the needle. In recovery, the donor may experience some pain in the areas where the needle was inserted.
Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)
The transfusion of healthy bone marrow cells into a person after their own unhealthy bone marrow has been eliminated.
Pictures or x-rays taken of the bone after a dye has been injected that is absorbed by bone tissue. These are used to detect tumors and bone abnormalities.
Bone Survey (Skeletal)
An x-ray of all the bones of the body; often done when looking for metastasis to the bones.
Bonnie Lynn Mechanic Celiac Disease Clinic
In addition to treating children who have Celiac disease, staff at Children's Hospital work extensively to educate patients and their families about how best to live a "gluten-free" life. The clinic is named for Bonnie Lynn Mechanic, who lost her battle with Celiac disease in 1973 at age 20.
Botox is an injectable medication that can reduce tone in specific muscles in patients with spasticity. Its effect typically lasts for several months. During this time, tight areas are stretched and weak muscles strengthened. It is one of many treatments offered in the Tone Management and Mobility Program.
Small and large intestine.
Passage of stool (body wastes) from the large intestine through the rectum and anus.
Brachial Arch Syndrome
A condition in which the tissues on one side of the face are underdeveloped, affecting primarily the ear (aural), mouth (oral), and jaw (mandibular) areas. Sometimes, both sides of the face can be affected and may involve the skull, as well as the face. It is also known as hemifacial microsomia (HFM), goldenhar syndrome, facio-auriculo-vertebral syndrome, oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum or lateral facial dysplasia.
Birth injury to the nerves that supplies the arms and hands.
Disproportionate shortness of the head.
A type of radiation treatment in which the radioactive substance is placed inside the patient as close as possible to the area being treated.
Suffix meaning slow.
Abnormally slow heartbeat.
A significant slowing of the heart rate. For a newborn this is defined as a heart rate less than 100 beats per minute. May be accompanied by apnea and cyanosis.
An infection in the brain that is encapsulated (confined within its own area) and localized to one or more areas inside of the brain. This condition causes problems with brain and spinal cord functions.
A head injury.
The most common solid tumors in children. Approximately 1,500 children in the US are diagnosed with a brain tumor each year. Brain tumors, either malignant or benign, are tumors that originate in the cells of the brain. A tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue.
Brain Tumor Clinic
At Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, children who are being treated for brain tumors are seen by many different doctors. Since many different treatment options - radiation, surgery, chemotherapy - and many combinations of these treatments are used to treat children with brain tumors, a team approach is needed to choose the best treatment for each child.
A genetic (inherited) disorder characterized by bones that break easily. There may not be a particular cause for the broken bones. It is also known as osteogenesis imperfecta.
A small airway (subdivision of the bronchus) that leads to areas of the lung and absorbs oxygen from the air.
Inflammation that involves the bronchioles (small airways).
An inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchial tubes, causing a persistent cough that produces considerable quantities of sputum (phlegm).
A group of drugs that widen the airways in the lungs.
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)
A general term for long-term respiratory problems in premature babies that results from lung injury from treatments with mechanical ventilators and oxygen. It is also known as chronic lung disease (CLD).
A fiberoptic, flexible tube is passed through the mouth into the bronchi to locate tumors or blockages, and to gather samples of tissue and/or fluid.
Any of the larger air passages that connect the trachea to the lungs.
Bruton's agammaglobulinemia, also called X-linked agammaglobulinemia or congenital agammaglobulinemia, was the first immunodeficiency disease ever identified. The disease causes the child to be unable to produce antibodies that make up gamma globulins in the plasma portion of blood. It is one of the many immunodeficiencies treated in the Primary Immunodeficiency Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin.
The condition of incessant grinding and clenching of the teeth, unintentionally, and at inappropriate times.
A disease in which there is uncontrolled episodes of overeating that are usually followed with purging (self-induced vomiting), misuse of laxatives, enemas, medications, fasting, or excessive exercise to decrease weight. It is also known as bulimia nervosa.
A disease in which there is uncontrolled episodes of overeating that are usually followed with purging (self-induced vomiting), misuse of laxatives, enemas, medications, fasting, or excessive exercise to decrease weight. It is also known as bulimia.
A condition in which the heart's electrical system is unable to normally conduct the electrical signal.
A non-Hodgkin's disease in which the cells are undifferentiated and diffuse. This has also been referred to as small non-cleaved cells. Burkitt's lymphoma accounts for about 40 to 50 percent of the cases and is usually characterized by a large abdominal tumor and may have bone marrow and central nervous system involvement. It is also known as non-Burkitt's lymphoma.
Children are seen in the burn clinic after they have been discharged from Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, discharged from another hospital, referred by a family practice physician or pediatrician, or treated and released from the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin Emergency Department, or another hospital's emergency room.
Fluid-filled sacs between bones and ligaments, or other adjacent structures.
Inflammation of the bursas.