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The association between gestational age at delivery, closure type and perinatal outcomes in neonates with isolated gastroschisis

Palatnik A, Loichinger M, Wagner AJ, Peterson E 2018 Sept; Epub ahead of printJ Matern Fetal Neonatal Med.. The association between gestational age at delivery, closure type and perinatal outcomes in neonates with isolated gastroschisis.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of this study was to examine the association between gestational age at delivery and closure type for neonates with gastroschisis. In addition, we compared perinatal outcomes among cases of gastroschisis based on the following two factors: gestational age at delivery and abdominal wall closure technique.

METHODS:

This was a retrospective cohort study of all fetuses with isolated gastroschisis that were diagnosed prenatally and delivered between September 2000 and January 2017, in a single tertiary care center. Neonates were compared based on the gestational age at the time of delivery: early preterm (less than 350/7 weeks), late preterm (350/7 - 366/7 weeks), and early term (370/6 - 386/7 weeks), using bivariate and multivariate analyses. The primary outcome was the type of abdominal wall closure: primary surgical closure or delayed closure using spring-loaded silo. Secondary outcomes included length of ventilatory support, length of parenteral nutrition, and length of hospital stay.

RESULTS:

The analysis included 206 pregnancies complicated by gastroschisis. In univariate analysis, no differences were detected in primary closure rates of gastroschisis among the gestational age at delivery groups (67.4%, at < 35 weeks, 70.8% at 350/7 - 366/7 weeks, 73.7% at 370/6 - 386/7 weeks, p = 0.865). However, for every additional 100 grams of neonatal live birth weight there was an associated 9% increased odds of primary closure (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.14-1.19, p = 0.04). Delivery in the early preterm period compared to the other two groups, was associated with longer duration of ventilation support and longer dependence on the parenteral nutrition. Neonates who underwent primary closure had shorter ventilation support, shorter time to initiation of enteral feeds and to discontinue parenteral nutrition, and shorter length of stay. In multivariate analyses, controlling for gestational age at delivery and presence of bowel atresia, primary closure continued to be associated with shorter duration of ventilation (by 5 days), earlier initiation of enteral feeds (by 7 days), shorter hospital stay (by 17 days) and lower odds of wound infection (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.97).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study did not find an association between gestational age at delivery and the rates of primary closure of the abdominal wall defect; however later gestational age at delivery was associated with shorter duration of ventilatory support and parenteral nutrition dependence. In addition, we found that primary closure of gastroschisis, compared with delayed closure technique, was associated with improved neonatal outcomes, including shorter time to initiate enteral feeds and discontinue parenteral nutrition, shorter hospital stay, and lower risk of surgical wound infection. Therefore, postponing delivery of fetuses with gastroschisis until 37 weeks may be considered. Other factors besides the gestational age at delivery should be explored as predictors of primary closure in neonates with gastroschisis.

PMID:  30173575

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The association between gestational age at delivery, closure type and perinatal outcomes in neonates with isolated gastroschisis

Palatnik A, Loichinger M, Wagner AJ, Peterson E. 2018 Sept; Epub ahead of printJ Matern Fetal Neonatal Med.. The association between gestational age at delivery, closure type and perinatal outcomes in neonates with isolated gastroschisis.

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