Urology is a surgical specialty concerned with normal and abnormal problems of the kidney, renal, pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra, penis, and vagina in both genders. Urogenital or genitourinary (GU) are words that refer to the urinary and genital organs.
Nephrology is the medical specialty concerned with the kidneys.
According to the American Society of Pediatric Nephrology (ASPN) each year in the US:
- 1,200,000 children develop urinary tract infections, more than one-third of which have vesicoureteral reflux, a specific obstruction of the urinary tract.
- 300,000 children will develop disorders that cause blood and protein to leak into their urine, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome and glomerulonephritis.
- 20,000 children are born with kidney abnormalities.
- 4,500 children and teenagers will require dialysis for renal failure.
- 2,000 infants will not survive due to a disease of the genitourinary system.
Many diseases of the genitourinary system in children are present when a child is born. This poses unique challenges that are vastly different from adults with kidney disease.
Because the genitourinary system is so complex, involving many systems in the body, a child with a genitourinary disorder may require a number of specialists to participate in care. The following is a list of specialists that may be involved in your child's care.
- Pediatric nephrologist
- Pediatric urologist
- Pediatric surgeons
- Transplant surgeons
- Pediatric radiologist
- Neurodevelopmental specialists
- Social workers
- Pediatric nurses
Anatomy of the Urinary System
Overview of Genitourinary Disorders
Urinary Incontinence (Enuresis)
Exstrophy of the Bladder and Epispadias
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Nutrition and Nephrotic Syndrome
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
Prune Belly Syndrome
Ureterocele and Ureteral Duplication
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)
Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)