Conditions & Topics (A - Z)
Select from the alphabetical list to find the symptom or condition you're looking for.
The cells that produce the electrical impulses that cause the heart to contract. It is also known as sinoatrial node or sinus node.
Those vertebrae (bones down the middle of the back) located in the upper buttocks area.
Lower back area.
A birth defect in which there is a mass that is usually solid as opposed to fluid filled at the lower back/upper buttocks area. These can vary greatly in size.
Sacrococcygeal Teratoma, prenatal diagnosis of:
Through the use of prenatal ultrasound (examining the fetus using ultrasound imaging before birth) the diagnosis of some birth defects can be detected. With this knowledge, families can seek out information which will allow them to participate more fully in decision making and planning care for their infant. It provides them opportunity to plan for delivery at an institution that is able to care for both mother and baby which avoids the trauma of transport and separation. Sacrococcygeal teratoma is a birth defect in which there is a mass that is usually solid as opposed to fluid filled at the lower back/upper buttocks area. These can vary greatly in size.
Saliva Control Clinic
The saliva control program and clinic provides a multidisciplinary assessment of children with saliva control problems caused by oral motor dysfunction, ear, nose and throat problems, neurologic problems, dental problems, or structural problems.
Fat that is found in foods from animal meats and skin, dairy products, and some vegetables. Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature and can increase LDL levels.
A formation of dried blood, pus or other skin fluid over a break in the skin. It is also known as crust.
An infestation of mites in the skin characterized by small pimples that itch.
Dead skin cells that look like flakes or dry skin.
A form of craniosynostosis that results in a long, narrow head. Scaphocephaly is an early fusion of the sagittal suture. This suture runs front to back, down the middle of the top of the head.
Fibrous tissue that has formed after a skin injury.
An infectious disease that causes a rash. It is usually associated with an infection by streptococci, such as strep throat. It may also be associated with wounds or burns that become infected. It is also known as scarlet fever.
An infectious disease that causes a rash. It is usually associated with an infection by streptococci, such as strep throat. It may also be associated with wounds or burns that become infected. It is also known as scarlatina.
One of the most complex of all mental health disorders; characterized by distorted thinking, strange feelings and unusual behavior and use of language; involves a severe, chronic and disabling disturbance of the brain.
School Performance Program
A multidisciplinary clinic housed within the Child Development Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. The clinic is designed to meet the diagnostic and treatment needs of children with a variety of conditions that affect interpersonal, academic, social, emotional, behavioral and family well-being.
The white visible portion of the eyeball. The muscles that move the eyeball are attached to the sclera.
Chronic, degenerative disease that affects the joints, skin and internal organs. It is also known as systemic sclerosis.
A disorder of the spine in which the spine shows evidence of a lateral, or sideways, curvature and a rotation of the backbones. This gives the appearance that the person is leaning to one side.
Pediatric orthopedic surgeons in the Variety Club Orthopedic Center performed nearly twice as many scoliosis surgeries in 2004 than any other hospital in Wisconsin. Most children do not need surgery to treat scoliosis, however, so we offer a full range of the most current treatments and family support along the way.
Thin, plastic film that is painted on the chewing surfaces of the back teeth - the molars and premolars - to prevent tooth decay.
Seating and Equipment Clinic
The Seating and Equipment Clinic staff at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin specialize in family-centered care for patients requiring adaptive seating, adaptive equipment, specialized wheelchairs, and/or splinting/bracing services.
Flesh-colored, yellow, brown or black wart-like spots.
Characterized by fine, white scales on infant. Symptoms include dry or greasy scales on the scalp. It can occur in the diaper area, face, neck and trunk. Seborrheic dermatitis in this age group usually clears within the first year. It is also known as cradle cap.
Secondary Sexual Characteristics
The physical characteristics of males and females that are not involved in reproduction (i.e., voice changes, body shape, pubic hair distribution, facial hair) but develop at puberty.
Burns that involves the epidermis and part of the dermis layer of skin. The burn site is red, blistered and painful, with possible swelling. It is also known as partial thickness burn. It is also known as partial thickness burn.
A measurement of how quickly red blood cells fall to the bottom of a test tube. When swelling and inflammation are present, the blood's proteins clump together and become heavier than normal. Thus, when measured, they fall and settle faster at the bottom of the test tube. Generally, the faster the blood cells fall, the more severe the inflammation. It is also known as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
Refers to involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation, which will result in spasms or jerky movements. These involuntary movements may or may not be accompanied by a loss of consciousness.
Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy
When the spinal rootlets are surgically cut, permanently altering the messages that lead to spasticity in the legs. It is one of the many treatments available to treat spasticity in the Tone Management and Mobility Program.
The inability to speak in specific social situations in a child or adolescent who can and does speak in other situations.
Feelings about one's self.
Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD)
Defined as excessive worry and fear about being apart from family members or individuals to whom a child is most attached. Children with separation anxiety disorder fear being lost from their family or fear something bad happening to a family member if they separated from them. Symptoms of anxiety or fear about being separated from family members must last for a period of at least four weeks to be considered SAD.
A hole in the wall between the atria or the ventricles (upper or lower heart chambers).
The muscle wall between the atria or ventricles (upper or lower heart chambers).
Multiple defects that occur as a result of a single structural defect. The primary structural defect starts a chain of events that affects the development of other body parts.
Transmission of an infection through sexual contact, including intercourse.
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
SCID is a group of very rare, life-threatening diseases that are present at birth. The disease causes the child to have very little or no immune system, however, early treatment of a bone marrow transplant can be successful. SCID is just one of the many immunodeficiencies treated in the Primary Immunodeficiency Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin.
The tonsils are small, round pieces of tissue that are located in the back of the mouth on the side of the throat. Tonsils are thought to help fight infections by producing antibodies. The tonsils can usually be seen in the throat of your child by using a light. Tonsillitis is defined as inflammation of the tonsils from infection.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Infection spread through sexual intercourse and other intimate sexual contact. Sexual contact can include intercourse and/or oral sex. It is also known as venereal disease.
A common viral infection of the nerves, characterized by a painful skin rash of small blisters anywhere on the body. It is a reactivation of the chickenpox virus. It is also known as herpes zoster.
A genetic disease caused by a missing piece of chromosome material on chromosome #22 that results in many different health problems, and affects the normal fetal development of the heart, thymus, and parathyroid glands. It is also known as DiGeorge syndrome, velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) and 22q11.2 Deletion syndrome. Children's Hospital of Wisconsin offers a multidisciplinary clinic designed to address the various medical, educational and psychosocial needs of the children and their families with these syndromes.
A thin tube used to drain fluid from on area of the body to another. May refer to an abnormal connection within the body (example: patent ductus arteriosus).
Sickle Cell Anemia (SC)
An inherited blood disorder characterized by defective hemoglobin, where there are two copies of an abnormal hemoglobin gene present (HbSS).
Sickle Cell Disease
An inherited blood disorder characterized by defective hemoglobin (a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body).
Sickle Cell - Hemoglobin C Disease
Having one copy of the gene which causes sickle cell anemia (HbS) and one copy of another altered hemoglobin gene (HbC); this blood disorder is similar to sickle cell anemia.
Sickle Cell - Hemoglobin E Disease
Having one copy of the gene which causes sickle cell anemia (HbS) and one copy of another altered hemoglobin gene (HbE); this blood disorder may/may not cause symptoms except under stress (exhaustion, infection, etc.).
Sickle Cell Trait
Having one copy of the gene which causes sickle cell anemia (HbS), and one copy of the normal hemoglobin gene.
The blood cells that reproduce and develop into other blood cells.
In sickle cell diseases, the pain that occurs when the flow of blood is blocked to an area because the sickled cells are stuck in a blood vessel. It is also called pain crisis or vasoocclusive crisis.
Manual (hand) language with its own syntax and grammar used primarily by people who are deaf. It is also known as American Sign Language (ASL).
Are comprised of a mixture of mercury (45 to 50 percent) and an alloy of silver, tin and copper (50 to 55 percent). It is also known as dental amalgams.
The cells that produce the electrical impulses that cause the heart to contract. It is also known as SA node or sinus node.
Air cavities within the facial bones, lined by mucous membranes similar to those in other parts of the airways. It is also known as paranasal sinuses.
Inflammation of the membranes lining the facial sinuses, often caused by bacterial or viral infection, or an allergic reaction.
The cells that produce the electrical impulses that cause the heart to contract. It is also known as sinoatrial node or SA node.
A normal heart rhythm in which each heartbeat originates in the sinus node, and proceeds through the rest of the electrical conduction system normally.
A heart rhythm that originates in the sinus node and proceeds through the rest of the electrical conduction system, but is faster than normal.
A malignant tumor that grows in the skin cells and strikes more people worldwide than any other form of cancer. In the US alone, more than one million Americans will be diagnosed with the disease this year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Using a piece of skin from an uninjured part of the body to repair a deep skin wound.
Soft, small, flesh-colored skin flaps on the neck, armpits or groin.
A break in the skull bone. There a four types of skull fractures: linear, depressed, diastatic and basilar.
The Sleep Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin was founded in 1981 to diagnose and treat infants with apnea. Since then, the Sleep Center has grown into a state-of-the art facility, with specially trained staff who diagnose and treat children of all ages with respiratory, non-respiratory and behavioral sleep disorders.
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)
A condition of the hip joint that affects children. In SCFE, the head, or "ball," of the thigh bone (referred to as the femoral head) slips off the neck of the thigh bone. An analogy commonly used to describe this condition is that it can be like a scoop of ice cream slipping off the top of a cone. This condition causes the hip joint to become painful and stiff.
To perceive odor or scent through stimuli affecting the olfactory nerves.
An anxiety disorder in which a person has significant anxiety and discomfort related to a fear of being embarrassed, humiliated or scorned by others in social or performance situations.
The muscular, movable part of the roof of the mouth.
A non-invasive test in which a transducer is passed over the kidney producing sound waves which bounce off of the kidney, transmitting a picture of the organ on a video screen. The test is used to determine the size and shape of the kidney and to detect a mass, kidney stone, cyst or other obstruction or abnormality. It is also known as a renal ultrasound.
Ability to produce voice.
Spasticity is an abnormal muscle stiffness caused by damage to the brain and/or spinal cord. Children with cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, brain injury and stroke often have spasticity that makes them have trouble sitting, crawling, walking, sleeping or eating. Spasticity also can cause bone deformity, skin breakdown, contractures and pain. Fortunately, most spasticity can be improved with a variety of medical and therapy interventions through our Tone Management and Mobility Program.
Special Needs Program
Offers care coordination for medically complex and fragile children and families with special health care needs.
Special Needs Services
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin offers a variety of services for children with special needs and their families. We can help you decide which programs and services will provide the best care for your child.
A type of phobia characterized by extreme fear of an object or situation that is not harmful under general conditions.
The ability to make sounds. Communication through vocal symbols involving breathing, voicing, articulating (making speech sounds such as /t/, /s/, etc) and resonation (how a voice sounds such as "stuffy" or the opposite, "too nasal").
Speech And Language Specialist
A professional who will perform a comprehensive speech evaluation to assess your child's communicative abilities and who will closely monitor your child throughout all developmental stages.
The Masters Family Speech and Hearing Center provides diagnostic and treatment intervention for infants, children and adolescents with feeding/swallowing disorders and communication or learning concerns. Our staff is highly skilled, including master and doctoral level audiologists and speech/language pathologists. Services may be requested to aid in the diagnosis of other diseases or disorders.
A condition that affects the ability to speak resulting in abnormalities in speech sound production, rate, rhythm (example: stuttering), voice or resonance (example: too nasal).
A professional therapist who evaluates and works to improve a child's or adult's speech and language skills. Also works with oral motor skills to improve feeding and swallowing.
Agents which impair the ability of sperm to fertilize an egg. This means that spermicides never even get to the developing pregnancy, since their job is to prevent pregnancy to begin with. However, studies from the 1970's and 1980's suggested that spermicides did cause some birth defects. Several subsequent studies, however, show no association with the use of spermicides and an increased chance for birth defects.
Located deep in the face, behind the nose. These sinuses do not develop until adolescence.
An instrument used to measure blood pressure.
A bright red mark with a distinct dark spot in the skin.
A birth defect in which the spinal column does not close completely and the covering of the spinal cord pushes out through the gap between the vertebrae, forming an external sac.
Spina Bifida/Myelomeningocele, prenatal diagnosis of:
Through the use of prenatal ultrasound (examining the fetus using ultrasound imaging before birth) the diagnosis of some birth defects can be detected. With this knowledge, families can seek out information which will allow them to participate more fully in decision making and planning care for their infant. It provides them opportunity to plan for delivery at an institution that is able to care for both mother and baby which avoids the trauma of transport and separation. Myelomeningocele is a birth defect in which the spinal column does not close completely and the covering of the spinal cord pushes out through the gap between the vertebrae, forming an external sac.
Spina Bifida Clinic
The Spina Bifida Clinic was created to serve all levels of spina bifida and related conditions. Our goal is to help children with spina bifida stay healthy, gain independence, and become confident in their abilities. Our team includes experienced, dedicated professionals who work together to provide and recommend care to benefit each child.
Is often used for lower abdominal, pelvic, rectal or lower extremity surgery. This type of anesthetic involves injecting a single dose of the anesthetic agent directly into the fluid surrounding the spinal cord in the lower back, causing numbness in the lower body
Consists of 33 vertebrae with the spinal cord housed within.
Part of the central nervous system. Contained inside the vertebral column.
A special needle is placed into the lower back, into the spinal canal. This is the area around the spinal cord. The pressure in the spinal canal and brain can then be measured. A small amount of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) can be removed and sent for testing to determine if there is an infection or other problems. CSF is the fluid that bathes your child's brain and spinal cord. It is also known as lumbar puncture and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) analysis.
Spiritual Care Program
The mission of the Spiritual Care Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin is to enable patients, families and staff to identify, recognize and use the spiritual and religious resources available to them for hope and guidance during difficult times.
A device used by your child's physician that assesses lung function. Spirometry, the evaluation of lung function with a spirometer, is one of the simplest, most common pulmonary function tests.
There are many sports injuries that require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional.
A diagnostic test performed on the material that is coughed up from the lungs and into the mouth. A sputum culture is often performed to determine if an infection is present.
Sports Medicine Clinic
The Sports Medicine Clinic is part of the Variety Club Orthopedic Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin and provides diagnosis and treatment of sports injuries in children of all ages.
These are the primary cell types found in the epidermis - the outer layer of skin. It is also known as keratinocytes.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
A form of skin cancer that affects about 20 percent of patients with skin cancer. This highly treatable cancer is characterized by red, scaly skin that becomes an open sore.
Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome
A response to a staphylococcal infection and is characterized by peeling skin. The disease mostly affects infants, young children, and individuals with a depressed immune system or renal insufficiency. The disease can be life threatening.
Involuntary movement of arms and legs that occurs when a newborn is startled by a loud sound or movement. It is also known as moro reflex.
Narrowing or constriction of a blood vessel or valve in the heart.
A device implanted in a vessel used to help keep it open.
A tiny, expandable coil, called a stent, is placed inside a blood vessel at the site of a blockage. The stent is expanded to open up the blockage.
This reflex is also called the walking or dance reflex because a baby appears to take steps or dance when held upright with his/her feet touching a solid surface.
A surgical incision made in the breastbone.
An instrument used to listen to the heart and other sounds in the body.
Blisters or a hive-like rash on the lining of the mouth, vagina or penis. Possible causes include antibiotics that contain sulfa, barbiturates, penicillins or other antibiotics.
A baby at birth with no heart rate or breathing effort.
Mental or physical tension that results from physical, emotional or chemical causes.
A passage is narrowed.
A high-pitched sound that is usually heard best when a child breaths in (inspiration). It is usually caused by an obstruction or narrowing in your child's upper airway.
The sudden disruption of blood flow to the brain.
Rare in infancy, subaortic stenosis may present as distinct fibromuscular stenosis, or as hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM).
A blood vessel that branches from the aorta and takes oxygen-rich (red) blood to the head and arms.
A surgical procedure performed to repair coarctation of the aorta, using part of the left subclavian artery as a patch to enlarge a narrowed aorta.
The deepest layer of skin and consists of collagen and fat cells. It is also known as subcutis.
The deepest layer of skin and consists of collagen and fat cells. It is also known as subcutaneous layer.
A type of mass that consists mostly of blood vessels. Subglottic hemangioma grows quickly in the child's first few months of life. The child will usually show signs around the age of 3 to 6 months. Some children may outgrow this problem, as the hemangioma will begin to get smaller after the first year of life. Most children will need surgery if the obstruction is severe. This condition is very rare.
The larynx (voice box) may become too narrow below the vocal cords. Children with subglottic stenosis are usually not diagnosed at birth, but, more often, a few months after, particularly if the child's airway becomes stressed by a cold or other virus. The child may eventually outgrow this problem without intervention. Most children will need a surgical procedure if the obstruction is severe. This problem is most common in premature infants.
Rooting helps a baby become ready to suck. When the roof of the baby's mouth is touched, the baby will begin to suck. This reflex does not begin until about the 32nd week of pregnancy and is not fully developed until about 36 weeks. Premature babies may have a weak or immature sucking ability because of this. Babies also have a hand-to-mouth reflex that goes with rooting and sucking and may suck on fingers or hands.
Actions taken by one who is considering or preparing to cause his/her own death.
Thoughts of suicide or wanting to take one's life.
The intentional taking of one's own life.
An act focused on taking one's life that is unsuccessful in causing death.
A visible reaction of the skin's exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the invisible rays that are part of sunlight. Ultraviolet rays can also cause invisible damage to the skin. Excessive and/or multiple sunburns cause premature aging of the skin and lead to skin cancer. Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the US and exposure to the sun is the leading cause of skin cancer.
Burns that only affect the epidermis, or outer layer of skin. The burn site appears red, painful, dry, and absent of blisters. Mild sunburn is an example. Scarring is usually rare or minimal. It is also known as first-degree burns.
Superior Vena Cava
The large vein that returns blood to the heart from the head and arms.
Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)
A fast heart rate that originates in the aorta, but does not start in the sinus node. It is also known as Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia (PAT).
When preparing your child for surgery, there is a great deal to consider prior to the procedure. Information regarding preparing your child, for which we have provided a brief overview.
Surgery Long-term Follow-up Clinic
The Surgery Long-term Follow-up Clinic at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin specializes in the care of children born with esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, imperforate anus, hirschsprung's disease, gastroschisis and omphalocele and related problems.
Surgery (General and Thoracic) Program and Clinics
Pediatric surgery is one of the broadest surgical specialties since it is defined by the age of the patient, not the organ system. Surgeons at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin treat the entire spectrum of problems in children of all ages, sizes and maturity levels - from the tiniest premature infants to adult-sized teenagers.
Swallowing Assessment Services
The Wal-Mart/Sam's Club Feeding, Swallowing and Nutrition Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin provides complete evaluation and treatment for children with simple to complex feeding/swallowing disorders.
Light-headedness or fainting caused by insufficient blood supply to the brain.
A collection of traits, health problems, and/or birth defects in an individual which usually has a single underlying cause.
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH)
Occurs when excessive levels of antidiuretic hormones (hormones that help the kidneys, and body, conserve the correct amount of water) are produced. The syndrome causes the body to retain water and certain levels of electrolytes in the blood to fall (such as sodium). SIADH is rare in children.
A disease, usually transmitted by sexual contact, whose initial symptom is a painless open sore that usually appears on the penis or around or in the vagina. If untreated, syphilis may go on to more advanced stages, including a transient rash and, eventually, serious involvement of the heart and central nervous system.
Syrup of Ipecac
An emetic (an agent used to cause vomiting) made from the dried root of a plant called ipecacuanha, which is grown in Brazil.
Chemotherapy administered orally or intravenously (IV).
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
An autoimmune disorder characterized by periodic episodes of inflammation of joints, tendons and other connective tissues and organs. It is also known lupus.
The time during the heartbeat when the ventricles are pumping blood, either to the lungs or to the body.
The highest blood pressure measured in the arteries.