Conditions & Topics (A - Z)
Select from the alphabetical list to find the symptom or condition you're looking for.
The top half, or shorter arm of a chromosome.
A protein that is mutated in some types of tumors.
Pulmonary artery band.
An electronic device that is surgically placed in the patient's body and connected to the heart to regulate the heartbeat.
In sickle cell diseases, the pain that occurs when the flow of blood is blocked to an area because the sickled cells are stuck in a blood vessel. It is also known as sickle crisis or vasoocclusive crisis.
Pain which causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other areas of functioning in which psychological factors are judged to play a significant role in the onset severity, exacerbation or maintenance of pain.
Pain Management Program
The Pain Management Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin treats both acute and chronic pain in either a hospital or clinic setting. Inpatient services are provided for children who are admitted to Children's Hospital and having pain due to surgery, illness or injury. The Pain Clinic offers outpatient assessment and treatment for children with chronic or long-standing pain problems.
Oncologists, neurologists, anesthesiologists, neurosurgeons and other physicians, nurses or pharmacists who are experts in pain. A team of health care professionals may also be available to address issues of pain control.
Treatment that provides relief and support (in regards to physical, emotional, spiritual and psychological) for the patient and their family, but is not aimed at cure.
Palliative Care, prenatal
Through the use of prenatal ultrasound (examining the fetus using ultrasound imaging before birth) the diagnosis of some birth defects can be detected. With this knowledge, families can seek out information which will allow them to participate more fully in decision making and planning care for their infant. It provides them opportunity to plan for delivery at an institution that is able to care for both mother and baby which avoids the trauma of transport and separation. For some the prenatal diagnosis is a condition for which there is no known cure and/or treatment. Palliative care is a treatment protocol with the goal of providing relief and support (in regards to physical, emotional, spiritual and psychological) for the patient and their family, but is not aimed at cure.
Palliative Care Program
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin provides palliative care services to children and families who are facing complex or life-threatening illnesses. Palliative care services compliment all forms of medical treatment, whether the goal is cure, rehabilitation or care for a dying child.
Treatment that relieves symptoms, such as pain, but is not expected to cure the disease. The main purpose is to improve the patient's quality of life.
Sensation of rapid heartbeats. A sensation in the chest caused by an irregular heartbeat.
An organ located across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. Produces enzymes that aid in digestion and also produces hormones such as insulin, which helps the body use sugar for energy. The pancreas plays a role in digestion, as well as hormone production.
Inflammation of the pancreas.
The production of all of the pituitary hormones decreases or stops, usually due to damage to the entire pituitary gland.
Characterized by chronic, repeated and unexpected panic attack bouts of overwhelming fear of being in danger when there is no specific cause for the fear. In-between panic attacks, persons with panic disorder worry excessively about when and where the next attack may occur.
Test that involves microscopic examination of cells collected from the cervix during a pelvic examination, used to detect changes that may be cancer or may lead to cancer, and to show noncancerous conditions, such as infection or inflammation. It is also known as pap test.
Test that involves microscopic examination of cells collected from the cervix during a pelvic examination, used to detect changes that may be cancer or may lead to cancer, and to show noncancerous conditions, such as infection or inflammation. It is also known as pap smear.
Any type of nipple-shaped object, such as the nipple of the breast.
A solid, raised bump. It is also known as a nodule or "overactive nodule" in thyroid.
Removal of fluid from the abdominal cavity using a needle and syringe.
Air cavities within the facial bones, lined by mucous membranes similar to those in other parts of the airways. It is also known as sinuses.
Occurs when the foreskin is retracted behind the corona (or crown) of the penis and cannot be returned to the unretracted position.
Inability to move the lower limbs.
Located in front of the neck, below the larynx (voice box). The parathyroid glands play a role in the regulation of the body's calcium balance.
A means of providing protein, fats, carbohydrates, fluid and vitamins to the body through a special solution given through a vein into the bloodstream.
A skin infection around a finger or toenail.
Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia (PAT)
A fast heart rate that originates in the aorta, but does not start in the sinus node. It is also known as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT).
The removal of part of the large intestine.
Partial Thickness Burn
Burns that involves the epidermis and part of the dermis layer of skin. The burn site is red, blistered and painful, with possible swelling. It is also known as partial thickness burn. It is also known as second-degree burns.
Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
Tests done to evaluate the effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs (also known as blood thinners) taken for various heart problems, including artificial valve replacement and irregular heart rhythms.
The presence of three #13 chromosomes. This condition is associated with severe health problems, birth defects and is typically fatal (one week to one year of age). It is also known as trisomy 13.
A flat, discolored spot.
Used to help diagnose skin allergies. Identified allergins are applied to the skin with adhesive patches and left for a period of time. The skin is then examined for any reaction.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
A condition in which the connecting blood vessel between the pulmonary artery and the aorta in fetal circulation stays open in a newborn baby. A blood vessel present in all infants that usually closes shortly after birth. It connects the aorta to the pulmonary artery. When it remains open, it allows extra blood to pass through from the aorta to the lungs. It is also known as ductus arteriosus.
Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)
An opening in the atrial septum (wall between the right and left atria) that is present in all infants, but which usually closes shortly after birth. When it remains open, it allows extra blood to pass through the opening from the left atrium to the right atrium.
A physician who specializes in diagnosis and classification of diseases by laboratory tests such as examination of tissue and cells under a microscope. The pathologist determines whether a tumor is benign or cancerous and, if cancerous, the exact cell type and grade.
A form of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis that affects four or less joints.
Peak Flow Meter
A portable, inexpensive, hand-held device used to measure the ability to push air out of the lungs.
A dentist who specializes in the oral health care of children, from infancy through the teenage years.
A physician specially trained to diagnose, treat and care for children birth through age 18 years. A pediatrician specializes in the care of children and will follow your child as he/she grows and help coordinate the multiple specialists involved.
A diagram of a family tree indicating the family members and their relationship to the person with an inherited disorder.
An internal examination of the uterus, vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder and rectum.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
Inflammation of the pelvic organs caused by a type of bacteria.
Related to the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum).
A sore in the lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum (beginning of the small intestine); often caused by a bacteria called helicobacter pylori.
Through the skin.
A catheter is placed in a deep vein or artery in the baby's arm and is used for meeting a baby's longer-term needs than an IV in the hand or scalp.
Percutaneous Umbilical Blood Sampling
Withdrawing a small sample of the fetal blood from the umbilical cord.
A hole in the wall of an organ.
A build-up of excess fluid in-between the heart and the membrane that surrounds it, often due to inflammation.
A diagnostic procedure that uses a needle to draw fluid from the pericardium.
Opening the membrane around the heart for open heart surgery.
An inflammation or infection of the sac which surrounds the heart.
The membrane that surrounds the heart.
A doctor specially trained in diagnosing and treating pregnant women and their fetus when problems arise. This doctor will follow a woman through pregnancy, labor, delivery and postpartum.
Serious bacterial infection that destroys the gums and the surrounding tissues of the mouth. It is also known as gum disease.
A specialist in the field of dentistry responsible for the care and prevention of gum-related diseases, guided bone regeneration and dental implants.
Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Collection
Stem cells are collected from the circulating cells in the blood.
Wave-like movements of food forward through the digestive tract.
The peritoneum is a two-layered membrane that lines the wall of the abdominal cavity and covers abdominal organs. Sometimes organs begin to stick to the peritoneum, requiring surgery to free the organs again.
Peritoneal dialysis is performed by surgically placing a special, soft, hollow tube into your child's lower abdomen near the navel. After the tube is placed, a special solution called dialysate is instilled into the peritoneal cavity. The peritoneal cavity is the space in the abdomen that houses the organs and is lined by two special membrane layers called the peritoneum. The dialysate is left in the abdomen for a designated period of time which will be determined by your child's physician. The dialysate fluid absorbs the waste products and toxins through the peritoneum. The fluid is then drained from the abdomen, measured, and discarded. There are two different types of peritoneal dialysis: continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD).
A two-layered membrane that lines the wall of the abdominal cavity and covers abdominal organs.
An infection inside the abdominal cavity.
Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL)
Softening of the white matter of the brain near the ventricles due to damage and death of brain tissue.
Persistent Fetal Circulation
In this condition, a newborn baby's circulation changes back to the circulation of a fetus, where much of the blood flow bypasses the lungs. It is also known as Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension (PPHN).
Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension (PPHN)
In this condition, a newborn baby's circulation changes back to the circulation of a fetus, where much of the blood flow bypasses the lungs. It is also known as persistent fetal circulation.
Mainly affects infants and young children; caused by a bacterium, it is characterized by paroxysms of coughing that end with the characteristic whoop as air is inhaled. Pertussis caused thousands of deaths in the 1930s and 1940s, but with the advent of a vaccine, the rate of death has declined dramatically. It is also known as whooping cough.
Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD)
Usually found in the early years of a child's life. Children with PDD have difficulty in areas of development or use of functional skills such as language, communication, social skills and motor behaviors.
Tiny red dots under the skin that are the result of very small bleeds.
Infection of the throat.
Back of the throat.
Phenol is a medicine that is injected into specific muscles to help control spasticity. It is one of many treatments available in the Tone Management and Mobility Program.
A normal part of protein.
Enzyme that converts phenylalanine (present in dietary protein) to tyrosine.
An inherited recessive disorder which is a disease tested for by newborn screening and often treatable by diet. Disease in which the body cannot metabolize a protein called phenylalanine.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) Clinic
In Wisconsin, all newborns have been screened for PKU since 1965. The state of Wisconsin provides special low phenylalanine formula and some low-protein foods and baking products to individuals with PKU to help these children develop normally. Children's Hospital of Wisconsin's clinic staff follows more than 50 children and adults with PKU. An experienced team of specialists provides diagnosis and management of PKU.
A constriction of the opening of the foreskin so that it cannot be drawn back over the tip of the penis.
An uncontrollable, irrational and persistent fear of a specific object, situation, or activity. It is also known as fear.
Study of speech sounds.
Sensitivity to light.
Treatment that uses light.
A health professional who uses exercises and other methods to restore or maintain the body's strength, mobility and function.
A specially trained health care provider who uses physical (exercise) and mechanical (heat, water, electric current) treatments to promote recovery or rehabilitation.
Physical Therapy/Occupational Therapy (PT/OT) Clinic
The physical therapy staff at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin specialize in pediatrics and use approaches to treatment that are age appropriate. The goal of physical therapy is to promote normal development and independent functioning. The occupational therapy staff at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin provide evaluation and treatment of children with congenital or acquired physical, psychological, sensory or perceptual dysfunction.
The persistent eating of non-nutritive substances (such as paint, string, hair, animal droppings, insects, soil) for over a month. The behavior must be developmentally inappropriate and not part of a culturally sanctioned practice.
Abnormal smallness of the lower jaw. It is also known as micrognathia.
Inflamed lesions that look like pink bumps. It is also known as pustule.
Located below the corpus callosum, a part of the brain. The pineal body produces the hormone melatonin.
Located at the base of the brain. No larger than a pea, the gland controls many functions of the other endocrine glands.
A common skin condition characterized by scaly, pink and inflamed skin.
Allows limited rotating movements (i.e. neck joint).
An organ attached to the wall of the uterus inside a pregnant woman. The placenta attaches to the fetus by the umbilical cord. It provides the fetus with nutrients, eliminates wastes, keeps baby oxygenated and exchanges gases (normally done in the lungs). The placenta is expelled after the birth of the baby and is referred to as the afterbirth.
The placenta is positioned low in the uterus. It can be partially or completely covering the opening of the uterus. This is potentially a life threatening condition for both the mother and baby because of the risk of bleeding at the time of the rupture of the bag of water.
The placenta pulls away from the uterine wall before delivery of the baby. This separation causes bleeding that can be life threatening for both the baby and mother. Sometimes the bleeding occurs internally, which delays the diagnosis of the condition.
Plagiocephaly literally means "oblique head" (from the Greek words "plagio" for oblique and "cephale" for head). See positional plagiocephaly and deformational plagiocephaly.
A thin, sticky film of bacteria.
The watery, liquid part of the blood in which the red blood cells, the white blood cells and platelets are suspended.
A surgeon with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of skeletal abnormalities of the skull, facial bones, and soft tissue; will work closely with the orthodontists and other specialists to coordinate a surgical plan.
Plastic Surgery Clinic
Surgeons in the Center for Craniofacial Disorders at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, which includes the Plastic Surgery Clinic, were the first in North America and Europe to perform distraction on a neonate born with an underdeveloped lower jaw, developing the only real cure for this disorder. Surgeons also treat cleft lip and palate, vascular malformations, facial paralysis, severe burns, craniofacial trauma including fractures and dog bites, craniosynostosis (prematurely fused skull), giant congenital pigmented nevus (birthmarks) and plagiocephaly (misshapen skull).
A procedure to remove extra platelets from the blood.
Cells found in the blood that are needed to help the blood to clot in order to control bleeding; often used in the treatment of leukemia and other forms of cancer.
A test that uses an electrical machine to transmit sounds at different volumes and pitches into your child's ears. Your child usually wears some type of earphones. This test is modified slightly in the toddler age group and made into a game. The toddler is asked to do something with a toy (i.e., touch a toy, move a toy) every time the sound is heard. This test relies on the cooperation of the child, which may not always be given.
Used to help meet the emotional needs of children who have an illness or surgery that requires hospitalization. Being in the hospital is stressful for children and their families. Sometimes, children feel scared, confused, and out of control. Play therapy is used to help children understand and cope with illness, surgery, hospitalization, treatments and procedures.
Membrane that covers the outside of the lung.
A collection of fluid between the lung and chest wall.
Inflamed membranes around the lungs.
Pluripotent Stem Cell
The most primitive, undeveloped blood cell.
Air leaks into the mediastinum (the space in the thoracic cavity behind the sternum and between the two pleural sacs containing the lungs).
Removal of an entire lung for cancer, lung abscesses, bronchiectasis or extensive tuberculosis.
Inflammation of the lungs.
Air leaks into the sac surrounding the heart.
Air leaks into the pleural space (the area between the chest wall and the outer tissues of the lungs); causes the lung to collapse.
A podiatrist specializes in foot care and is licensed to prescribe medication and perform surgery.
Poison Center of Wisconsin
The Wisconsin Poison Center, located in Milwaukee, provides 24-hour, toll-free poison information for all people in Wisconsin. In November 2009, the Poison Center was awarded national recertification by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. The AAPCC is the nationwide organization that sets standards and acts as the data repository for poison centers across the country.
Poison Ivy/Poison Oak
There are three native American plants that collectively may be called poison ivy: poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. These plants can cause an allergic reaction in nearly 85 percent of the population. To be allergic to poison ivy, your child must first be "sensitized" to the oils. This means that next time there is contact with the plant, a rash may occur.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by various types of poliovirus. Spread though feces and airborne particles, the poliovirus usually causes no more than a mild illness. However, some of the more serious manifestations of the disease include meningitis, which can lead to extensive paralysis. It is also known as poliomyelitis.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by various types of poliovirus. Spread though feces and airborne particles, the poliovirus usually causes no more than a mild illness. However, some of the more serious manifestations of the disease include meningitis, which can lead to extensive paralysis. It is also known as polio.
The cells of flowering plants, including trees, grasses, and weeds. Pollen is microscopic in size. Pollen is the most common cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis, sometimes known as "hay fever."
Polyarteritis Nodosa Group
An inflammatory disease of the arteries.
A form of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis that affects five or more joints.
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
A genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts filled with fluid in the kidneys.
A condition in which there are too many red blood cells in the blood circulation.
Refers to a greater than normal volume of amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn baby. This can be an indication of a problem with the baby especially with the gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestines) or the brain and spinal cord. There are a variety of causes, maternal and fetal that can result in this condition.
A growth that projects from the lining of mucous membrane, such as the intestine.
A type of fat found in vegetable oils and margarines that does not appear to raise blood cholesterol levels.
Increased production of urine.
A ceramic material is bonded to the front of teeth to change the tooth's color, size, and/or shape.
High blood pressure in the portal vein that carries blood to the liver.
The large vein that carries blood to the liver from the spleen and intestines.
The flattening of a portion of an infant's head due to prolonged pressure in one area of the skull. It often occurs along with torticollis and is treated in the Center for Craniofacial Disorders at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. It is also known as deformational plagiocephaly.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
In nuclear medicine, a procedure that measures the metabolic activity of cells.
Post-Anesthesia Care Unit
The area a patient is brought to after surgery to recover. It is also known as recovery room.
A build up of excess fluid in-between the heart and the membrane that surrounds it, often due to inflammation after open heart surgery. ("Post" means after, and "pericardiotomy" means opening the membrane around the heart for open heart surgery.)
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
An anxiety disorder characterized by a terrifying physical or emotional event (trauma) causing the person who survived the event to have persistent, frightening thoughts and memories, or flashbacks, of the ordeal. Persons with PTSD often feel chronically, emotionally numb.
Referring to the back part of a structure.
The back part of the eye's interior.
The junction of the two parietal bones and the occipital bone. The posterior fontanelle usually closes first, before the anterior fontanelle, during the first several months.
Posterior Optical Segment
Portion of the eye located behind the crystalline lens, and including vitreous, choroid retina and optic nerve.
Posterior Urethral Valves
An abnormality of the urethra where the urethral valves, (small leaflets of tissue) have a narrow, slit-like opening that partially impedes urine outflow. Reverse flow occurs and can affect all of the urinary tract organs including the urethra, bladder, ureters and kidneys.
The normal length of pregnancy is from 37 to 41 weeks. Postmaturity refers to any baby born after 42 weeks gestation or 294 days past the first day of the mother's last menstrual period. About 7.4 percent of all babies are born at 42 weeks or later. Other terms often used to describe these late births include post-term, postmaturity, prolonged pregnancy and post-dates pregnancy.
Refers to things related to the baby after birth.
Refers to the time after the birth of a baby.
The postpartum period involves the mother progressing through many changes, both emotionally and physically, while learning how to deal with all the changes and adjustments required in becoming a new mother. The postpartum period also involves the parents learning how to care for their newborn and learning how to function as a changed family unit.
Refers to heavy and/or uncontrolled bleeding. Postpartum or after delivery, the loss of greater than 500cc/ml of blood is defined as postpartum hemorrhage. This loss of blood may occasionally be internal with no noted vaginal blood loss. This is a surgical emergency. Signs and symptoms of postpartum hemorrhage may include decreased B/P, loss of consciousness, pale color, tachycardia (increased heart rate), and either a soft uterus or a firm, rigid abdomen.
A specialized collection bag worn over an ostomy to collect stool.
A device that measures the amount of oxygen in the blood. Normal oxygen saturation in the arteries is 95 to 100 percent. It is also known as pulse oximeter.
Skin tags by the ear.
Abnormally early puberty characterized by the early development of sexual characteristics in girls before the age of 8 and in boys before the age of 9. Most children with the disorder grow fast at first, but also finish growing before reaching their full genetic height potential. Left untreated, most boys will not grow taller than 5 feet 2 inches, and girls often do not grow taller than 5 feet.
An examination performed by your health care provider before you become pregnant to assess overall health and identify potential risk factors that may complicate a pregnancy.
Predictive Genetic Testing
Determines the chances that a healthy individual with or without a family history of a certain disease might develop that disease or have a child with the disease.
A multisystem process that affects pregnant women for unknown reasons. Symptoms that define the process include a significant rise in blood pressure, swelling of especially the hands and face, sudden weight gain (due to the swelling), and spilling protein in the urine (noted with dipstick of urine at your doctor's office). This process can progress to involve the liver, and hematologic (blood) system, as well as neurologic (including changes in mental status and seizures) systems. It is also known as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) or toxemia.
A pregnancy is divided into three phases, called trimesters. Each trimester has its own significant milestones.
Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension (PIH)
A multisystem process that affects pregnant women for unknown reasons. Symptoms that define the process include a significant rise in blood pressure, swelling of especially the hands and face, sudden weight gain (due to the swelling), and spilling protein in the urine (noted with dipstick of urine at your doctor's office). This process can progress to involve the liver, and hematologic (blood) system, as well as neurologic (including changes in mental status and seizures) systems. It is also known as preeclampsia or or toxemia.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
Used following in vitro fertilization to diagnose a genetic disease or condition in an embryo before it is implanted into the mother's uterus.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) Program
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Froedtert Hospital and the Medical College of Wisconsin offer PGD for specific chromosomal abnormalities and for sex-linked disorders.
Premature Atrial Contraction (PAC)
An early heartbeat started by the atria.
A baby born at or before the 37th week of pregnancy.
Premature Rupture Of Membranes (PROM)
The bag of water surrounding your fetus breaks before the onset of labor. Preterm premature rupture is defined as before 37 weeks gestation. This can happen at any time during pregnancy and carries risks for the mother and for the unborn baby.
Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC)
An early heartbeat started by the ventricles.
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
A group of physical and emotional symptoms that some women experience during their menstrual cycle. Although the symptoms usually cease with onset of the menstrual period, in some women, symptoms may last through and after their menstrual periods.
Used to diagnose a genetic disease or birth defect in the developing fetus.
Prenatal Medical Care
As soon as a woman discovers she is pregnant, she should establish a schedule of prenatal care with her physician for the entire duration of the pregnancy.
Prescribed when a woman becomes pregnant to supplement her diet to meet the growing nutritional needs of pregnancy. The amount of vitamins contained in a prenatal vitamin are calculated to specifically address some of the biological changes that happen when a woman is pregnant, such as the increased blood volume. When used at the recommended dosage, prenatal vitamins do not increase the risk for birth defects.
A form of farsightedness in which it is difficult to focus on close objects or to read and occurs as a child ages.
Presymptomatic Genetic Testing
Used to determine whether persons who have a family history of a disease but no current symptoms have the gene alteration associated with the disease.
Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM)
Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM) is when the bag of water surrounding your fetus breaks before the onset of labor. Preterm premature rupture is defined as before 37 weeks gestation. This can happen at any time during pregnancy and carries risks for the mother and for the unborn baby. If PROM occurs before 37 weeks of pregnancy, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM).
Inflammation of the penis.
Prick Skin Test
A test to determine if a child is allergic to certain substances. A physician places a drop of the substance being tested on the child's forearm or back and pricks the skin with a needle, allowing a tiny amount to enter the skin. If the child is allergic to the substance, a wheal (mosquito bite-like bump) will form at the site within about 15 minutes.
A rash caused by trapped sweat under the skin.
Primary Immune Deficiency
There are many different genetic disorders that can affect a child's immune system. Some include severed combined immunodeficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, DiGeorge syndrome and X-linked agammaglobulinemia. They all are treated in the Primary Immunodeficiency Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. It also is known as primary immunodeficiency, immunodeficiency or immune defciency.
There are many different genetic disorders that can affect a child's immune system. Some include severed combined immunodeficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, DiGeorge syndrome and X-linked agammaglobulinemia. They all are treated in the Primary Immunodeficiency Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. It also is known as primary immune deficiency, immunodeficiency or immune defciency.
Primary Immunodeficiency Program
The Primary Immunodeficiency Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin offers diagnosis and treatment of complex primary immune deficiencies (non-AIDS). Our goal is to make an accurate and early diagnosis, which is critical in patients with severe immunodeficiencies.
Primary Sexual Characteristics
Internal and external reproductive organs in males and females (i.e., uterus and testes).
The place where cancer begins. Primary cancer is named after the organ in which it starts. For example, cancer that starts in the kidney is always kidney cancer even if it spreads (metastasizes) to other organs such as bones or lungs.
A hormone secreted by the ovaries which affects many aspects of the female body, including menstrual cycles and pregnancy.
The outlook or forecast for recovery or condition in the future. A prediction of the course of disease; the outlook for the cure of the patient.
A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which affects growth of the mammary (related to the breasts) glands.
When part of the body (for instance, a section of intestine) slips from its normal position.
Prolonged Rupture Of Membranes (PROM)
When the bag of waters has been ruptured for longer than 12-24 hours without delivery occurring. The amniotic sac acts as a barrier to prevent infection, with prolonged time after rupture and no delivery there is an increased risk for infection in either or both the mother and the baby.
Lying on your stomach.
An intravenous medication used to keep a patent ductus arteriosus from closing and preserve blood flow to the lungs.
A device that is substituted for a diseased or missing part of the body.
A dental specialist who has undergone additional training and certification in the restoration and replacement of broken teeth with crowns, bridges or removable prosthetics (dentures).
One of three main types of foods, along with fats and carbohydrates. Proteins are digested into smaller pieces called amino acids that are used by the body to build and repair cells. Proteins are found in meats, eggs, milk products, and beans.
A large molecule made up of smaller units called amino acids. Proteins serve many vital functions within and outside of the cell. Genes code for, and make, proteins.
Large amounts of protein in the urine.
A formal outline or plan, such as a description of what treatments a patient will receive and exactly when each should be given.
Medicines that affect how acid is produced by the stomach's "proton pump" system, thereby decreasing stomach acid.
Prothrombin Time (PT)
Tests done to evaluate the effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs (also known as blood thinners) taken for various heart problems, including artificial valve replacement and irregular heart rhythms.
Prune Belly Syndrome
A triad of symptoms that include multiple urinary tract abnormalities. The common abnormalities include absence of abdominal muscles, undescended testes and abnormalities of the upper urinary tract.
Itching of the skin.
Severe itching of the skin.
A chronic skin condition characterized by inflamed, red, raised areas that develop silvery scales.
A form of arthritis associated with psoriasis, a skin and nail disease.
A masters-level clinical specialist in psychiatric mental health nursing. A psychiatric nurse is educationally and clinically trained in psychopathology, individual, group, family therapy and crisis intervention.
Licensed physicians (M.D. or D.O.) who specialize in the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. A physician who assesses the psychosocial function and behavioral development of your child. Their medical and psychiatric training prepares them to treat adults and children either individually, as part of and involving the family unit, and/or in a group setting. Psychiatrists can prescribe medications, if needed.
Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine Center
The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin provides mental health diagnostic and treatment services to children and families. Staff includes experts in the fields of child and adolescent psychiatry, pediatric psychology, neuropsycholoyæand psychotherapy.
Testing to evaluate how your child thinks and reasons.
A licensed mental health professional (LCSW, LMFT, LPC) who specializes in the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and behavioral disorders. The training prepares psychotherapists to treat children individually, in family or in group settings.
Licensed mental health professional (Ph.D. or Psy.D.) who specializes in the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Training prepares clinical psychologists to treat adults and children either individually, as part of and involving the family unit and/or in a group setting. Psychologists also conduct cognitive, academic and personality testing.
A sequence of events by which a child becomes a young adult; characterized by secretions of hormones, development of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive functions and growth spurts.
Pertaining to the lungs and respiratory system.
Pulmonary Artery (PA)
The blood vessel connecting the right ventricle to the lungs, allowing oxygen-poor (blue) blood to receive oxygen.
Pulmonary Atresia (PA)
A complicated congenital (present at birth) defect that occurs due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.
Pulmonary Atresia (PA) With Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Characterized by underdevelopment of the right ventricular outflow tract with atresia of the pulmonary valve, a large VSD and overriding of the aorta.
The pulmonary clinics at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin welcome children and adults with a wide range of problems inlcuding cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, breathing problems, lung transplantation, tracheal atresia, home mechanical ventilation and apnea.
Pulmonary Collateral Vessels
New blood vessels that are created by the body to provide extra blood flow to an area when the blood vessel(s) that are already there are too small, narrowed or blocked.
A condition in which there is fluid accumulation in the lungs caused by an incorrectly functioning heart.
Pulmonary Function Tests
Diagnostic tests that help to measure the lungs' ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide appropriately. The tests are usually performed with special machines that a child must breathe into.
A surgical procedure performed to repair aortic stenosis. The child's own pulmonary valve and base of the pulmonary artery (autograft) replace the defective aorta, while a homograft (blood vessel from a tissue donor) replaces the pulmonary valve and base of the pulmonary artery. It is also known as Ross procedure.
Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema (PIE)
Air leaks and is trapped between the alveoli, the tiny air sacs.
A congenital (present at birth) defect that occurs due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.
The heart valve located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery that controls blood flow to the lungs.
The vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left side of the heart.
Pulse Oximetery Screening
The simple non-invasive test measures the amount of oxygen in the blood. Normal oxygen saturation in the arteries is 95 to 100 percent. It is also known as pulse ox screening.
The opening in the middle of the iris through which light passes to the back of the eye.
The constriction or dilation of the pupil as stimulated by light.
Pure Tone Audiometry
A test that uses an electrical machine that produces sounds at different volumes and pitches in your child's ears. The child usually wears some type of earphones. In this age group, the child is simply asked to respond in some way when the tone is heard in the earphone.
Persons with bulimia nervosa engage in a destructive pattern of ridding their bodies of the excess calories (to control their weight) by vomiting, abusing laxatives or diuretics, taking enemas and/or exercising obsessively - a process called purging.
The purple color of skin after blood has "leaked" under it, such as in a bruise.
Having or making pus.
Inflamed lesions that look like pink bumps. It is also known as pimple.
The area of the kidney called the renal pelvis is a little enlarged beyond the normal parameters.
Surgical repair of a blockage between the kidney and ureter.
The muscle between the stomach and the small intestine.
An enlargement of the muscle between the stomach and the small intestine, blocking the passage of food and liquids forward into the intestines.
An operation that enlarges the opening between the stomach and small intestine so food and liquid can move forward and be digested normally.
Where the stomach connects to the small intestine.
Red, brown or bluish-black raised marks caused by excessive growth of capillaries.