Conditions & Topics (A - Z)
Select from the alphabetical list to find the symptom or condition you're looking for.
A heart rate that is above the normal range; rapid heartbeat.
A foot deformity that is detected at birth. It affects the bones, muscles, tendons, and blood vessels and can affect one or both feet. The foot is usually short and broad in appearance and the heel points downward while the front half of the foot, or forefoot, turns inward. The heel cord (Achilles tendon) is tight. The heel can appear narrow and the muscles in the calf are smaller compared to a normal lower leg. It is also known as clubfoot.
An emergency situation that occurs when blood or fluid fills the pericardial sac surrounding the heart, preventing the heart from beating effectively.
Sensation produced by a stimulus applied to the gustatory nerve endings in the tongue; the four tastes are salt, sour, sweet, and bitter; some say there is a fifth taste described as savory.
Groups of cells located on the tongue that enable one to recognize different tastes.
Tay Sachs Disease
An inherited autosomal recessive condition that causes a progressive degeneration of the central nervous system which is fatal (usually by age 5).
Teens And Diabetes
Although the teenage years can be a challenge for any child as he or she goes through sexual and emotional changes, it can be especially trying for adolescents with diabetes.
The process of teeth moving and breaking through the gums. This is a normal developmental stage for your baby.
A small box with wires attached to EKG patches on the chest; used to send information about the heartbeat via radio transmission to health care professionals for evaluation.
A way a young child lets out strong emotions before he or she is able to express them in socially acceptable ways.
Temporomandibular Joints (TMJ)
The two complex joints that connect the jaw (mandible) to the skull (temporal bone).
Tough, connective tissue that attach muscles to a joint.
An agent (drug, maternal infection, medication) that has the potential to cause birth defects if exposure to a fetus occurs at a critical time in pregnancy.
A twisting of the testicles and the spermatic cord (the structure extending from the groin to the testes that contains nerves, ducts and blood vessels).
A male's testes are located in a pouch that hangs suspended outside his body. The testes produce testosterone and sperm.
The testes are responsible for making sperm and are also involved in producing a hormone called testosterone. Testosterone is an important hormone during male development and maturation - for developing muscles, deepening the voice, and growing body hair.
An acute, sometimes fatal, disease of the central nervous system; caused by the toxin of the tetanus bacterium, which usually enters the body through an open wound. The tetanus bacterium live in soil and manure, but also can be found in the human intestine and other locations.
The spinal cord does not slide up and down freely with movement, but instead is held in place by surrounding tissue. Some affected individuals will have no symptoms, others will suffer progressive loss of function in their legs and some may develop scoliosis. Surgery to untether the cord typically results in function returning to the usual level.
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
A group of congenital heart defects, including a ventricular septal defect, obstruction to blood flow out of the right ventricle to the lungs and an aorta that is shifted to the right. Enlargement of the right ventricle occurs as the right ventricle copes with obstruction to blood flow.
An inherited blood disorder in which the chains of the hemoglobin (a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues) molecule are abnormal; alpha thalassemia is where a mutation occurs in the alpha chain, while beta thalassemia is where the mutation occurs in the beta chain; signs and symptoms of thalassemias vary from mild (little to no symptoms) to severe (life threatening).
The treatment of cancer and other diseases with radiation. High energy x-rays are used to kill the cancer cells by preventing them from multiplying. Therapeutic radiology may be used to cure or control cancer, or to alleviate some of the symptoms associated with cancer. It is also known as radiation oncology.
Burns due to external heat sources which raise the temperature of the skin and tissues and cause tissue cell death or charring. Hot metals, scalding liquids, steam, and flames, when coming in contact with the skin, cause thermal burns.
Burns that destroy the epidermis and dermis. The burn site appears white or charred black. There is no sensation in the area, because the nerve endings are destroyed. It is also known as a full thickness burn.
A relative that you share 1/8 of your genes with such as your first cousins.
Removal of fluid from the chest cavity using a syringe and needle.
Those vertebrae located in the chest area.
An incision made on the right or left side of the chest between the ribs, in order to access the heart or lungs during surgery.
Threshold Of Expression
One gender is more likely to show a problem, over the other gender.
Disorders or diseases of the larynx (voice box) or esophagus.
A condition in which there are too few platelets (cells produced in the bone marrow that are needed for clotting).
Medication used to dissolve blood clots.
A fungal infection of the mouth that usually causes a white coating on the tongue, cheeks or throat. A yeast infection in the mouth and throat of babies.
One of the most common habits of children. Approximately 50 to 87 percent of children suck their thumbs. The habit starts early in life, with 90 percent of newborns showing some form of hand sucking by 2 hours of age.
Located in the upper part of the chest and produces T-lymphocytes (white blood cells that fight infections and destroy abnormal cells).
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
A hormone that helps to increase the size, number, and activity of the thyroid cells; stimulates the release of hormones that affect a person's metabolism and that are essential for normal growth and development.
Located in front of the neck, below the larynx (voice box). The thyroid plays an important role in the body's metabolism and also plays a role in the regulation of the body's calcium balance.
Uses a radioactive substance to create an image of the thyroid as it is functioning.
A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which regulates metabolism.
The shin bone.
An inward twist of the shin bones, the bones that are located between the knee and the ankle. Tibial torsion causes the child's feet to turn inward, or have what is also known as a "pigeon-toed" appearance. It is typically seen among toddlers.
Ringworm of the scalp. An infection of the hair caused by a fungus. The fungus causes the hair to break. Combs, brushes, hats, barrettes, seat backs, pillows and bath towels can carry the fungus.
Ringworm. A fungus infection of the skin.
A fungal skin infection characterized by ring-shaped, red, scaly or blistery patches. It is also known as ringworm.
Athlete's foot. Caused by a fungus that grows best on warm, damp skin.
A common fungal skin infection characterized by white or light brown patches on the skin.
From the Greek words "to cut or section" (tomos) and "to write" (graphein), in nuclear medicine, it is a method of separating interference from the area of interest by imaging a cut section of the object.
Tone Management and Mobility Program
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin offers a complete Tone Management and Mobility program to meet the complex needs of children with spasticity and other movement disorders. This includes offering the full range of current medical, surgical and rehabilitative treatments, pediatric physiatrists who specialize in physical medicine and rehabilitation to treat children's spasticity and access to other pediatric specialists if needed such as pediatric neurosurgeons, pediatric orthopedic surgeons and physical therapists.
Large muscle on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing and swallowing; the main organ of taste; assists in forming speech sounds.
Tonic Neck Reflex
When a baby's head is turned to one side, the arm on that side stretches out and the opposite arm bends up at the elbow. This is often called the "fencing" position. The tonic neck reflex lasts about six to seven months.
Test to measure intraocular pressure for glaucoma.
Removal of tissue.
Infection of the tonsils.
Chemotherapy given as a cream or lotion placed on the skin to kill cancer cells.
An acronym for toxoplasmosis, other viruses, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus and sometimes an "S" is added for syphillus. Refers to a group of infections that can affect an unborn baby if the mother should contract them during pregnancy. These infections are known to cross the placenta and can result in congenital (exists at birth) infection.
Torticollis is a tightening of the neck muscles resulting in a head tilt and/or head turn preference. It usually is caused before birth by the position of the baby in the uterus or a mild injury to the neck muscles during delivery.
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin offers evaluation and treatment of infants with torticollis and positional plagiocephaly.
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)
A congenital (present at birth) heart defect. Due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy, the vessels that bring oxygen-rich (red) blood back to the heart from the lungs are improperly connected.
Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)
A means of providing protein, fats, carbohydrates, fluid and vitamins to the body through a special solution given through a vein into the bloodstream. Many people call this "intravenous feedings."
Tourette's Disorder (TD)
A tic disorder characterized by repeated involuntary movements and uncontrollable vocal sounds. This disorder usually begins during childhood or early adolescence. It is also knnown as Tourette's Syndrome (TS).
Tourette's Syndrome (TS)
A tic disorder characterized by repeated involuntary movements and uncontrollable vocal sounds. This disorder usually begins during childhood or early adolescence. It is also knnown as Tourette's Disorder.
A multisystem process that affects pregnant women for unknown reasons. Symptoms that define the process include a significant rise in blood pressure, swelling of especially the hands and face, sudden weight gain (due to the swelling), and spilling protein in the urine (noted with dipstick of urine at your doctor's office). This process can progress to involve the liver, and hematologic (blood) system, as well as neurologic (including changes in mental status and seizures) systems. It is also known as preeclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH).
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
A life-threatening skin disorder characterized by blistering and peeling of the top layer of skin.
Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)
Describes a cluster of symptoms that involve many systems of the body. TSS is usually caused by staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus pyogenes.
An infectious disease caused by a parasite that can be harmful to an unborn baby.
The windpipe; the passage from the nose to the lungs.
Tracheal Esophageal Atresia/Esophageal Atresia, prenatal diagnosis of:
Through the use of prenatal ultrasound (examining the fetus using ultrasound imaging before birth) the diagnosis of some birth defects can be detected. With this knowledge, families can seek out information which will allow them to participate more fully in decision making and planning care for their infant. It provides them opportunity to plan for delivery at an institution that is able to care for both mother and baby which avoids the trauma of transport and separation. Tracheal esophageal atresia is caused by improper development of the baby's trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (food pipe) during pregnancy. The esophagus does not connect to the stomach, and there is also an abnormal connection between the esophagus and the trachea. Food cannot pass through to the stomach, and may pass into the trachea and then into the lungs, causing breathing problems. Esophageal atresia is the baby's esophagus does not develop properly, and ends before reaching the stomach. It is a blind pouch with no connection. Food cannot pass from the mouth into the stomach.
Tracheal stenosis (narrowing of the airway) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition. It can be treated surgically by a coordinated team of specialists and careful monitoring before and after surgery.
A surgical opening through the neck and into the trachea or windpipe through which a special tube is place to allow the baby to breath through or the ventilator is attached to.
The pulmonary clinics at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin welcome children and adults with a wide range of problems, including those in need of a tracheostomy and/or ventilator.
Tracheoesophageal Fistula (TEF)
Caused by improper development of the baby's trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (food pipe) during pregnancy. The esophagus does not connect to the stomach, and there is also an abnormal connection between the esophagus and the trachea. Food cannot pass through to the stomach, and may pass into the trachea and then into the lungs, causing breathing problems.
Vegetable oil that has been treated with hydrogen in order to make it more solid and give it a longer shelf life.
A partial tear or a complete tear in the spinal cord.
Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE)
A diagnostic test that uses a long tube guided into the mouth, throat and esophagus to evaluate the structures inside the heart with sound waves.
Some newborns may have abnormal thyroid hormone levels at birth, which eventually stabilize and become normal. These children are said to have transient hypothyroidism as a result of exposure to antithyroid medications, maternal antithyroid antibodies, or an iodine deficiency in the womb. Thyroid function in these children usually returns to normal within a certain time period and usually does not require long-term treatment.
Transient Tachypnea Of The Newborn (TTN)
A mild respiratory problem of babies, characterized by rapid breathing, that begins after birth and lasts about three days.
Transition to adult care
Transition is a process of moving from pediatric health care to adult health care. This transition often presents new challenges for youth with chronic illness or special needs and their families.
When the location of specific chromosomal material moves to another chromosome.
Translocation Down Syndrome
Refers to the rearranged chromosome material. There are three # 21 chromosomes, just like there are in trisomy 21, but one of the 21 chromosomes is attached to another chromosome, instead of being separate. The extra # 21 chromosome is what causes the problems that make up Down syndrome. In translocation Down syndrome, the extra 21 chromosome may be attached to the #14 chromosome, or to #s13, 15, or 22. In some cases, two #21 chromosomes can be attached to each other.
X-rays, CT scans, and fluoroscopy are radiological examinations whose images are produced by transmission. In transmission imaging, a beam of high-energy photons is produced and passed through the body structure being examined. The beam passes very quickly through less dense types of tissue such as watery secretions, blood, and fat, leaving a darkened area on the x-ray film. Muscle and connective tissues (ligaments, tendons, and cartilage) appear gray. Bones will appear white.
The transplant programs at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin are committed to providing the highest quality transplant services in a family-centered environment. Our uniquely qualified transplant teams work to ensure optimal treatment before, during and after transplant.
Replacing a damaged organ with one from a donor. To transfer organs, tissues or cells form one person to another or from one area of the body to another in order to replace a diseased structure and to restore function.
Transport and Physician Referral
Specialized pediatric transport team members are on call 24 hours a day to provide emergency neonatal/pediatric transport service to Children's Hospital of Wisconsin from referring facilities via ambulance, rotor-wing, and fixed-wing. The transport team stabilizes and transports premature infants, newborns requiring immediate surgery, children in respiratory distress, children who have ingested poison, and other critically ill or injured children. Children's Transport primarily serves Wisconsin, northern Illinois and the upper peninsula of Michigan, but has traveled across the United States from Massachusetts to Florida, Minnesota to New Mexico bringing patients to the nation's No. 3 rated pediatric hospital.
Transposition Of The Great Arteries (TGA)
A congenital heart defect involving abnormal development of the great arteries (the aorta and the pulmonary artery) during the time the heart is forming prior to birth. The aorta ends up being connected to the right ventricle, and the pulmonary artery is connected to the left ventricle, which is the opposite of how they are normally connected. It is also known as Transposition of the Great Vessels (TGV).
Transposition Of The Great Vessels (TGV)
A congenital heart defect involving abnormal development of the great arteries (the aorta and the pulmonary artery) during the time the heart is forming prior to birth. The aorta ends up being connected to the right ventricle, and the pulmonary artery is connected to the left ventricle, which is the opposite of how they are normally connected. It is also known as Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA).
A small, ultrasound transducer is inserted into the vagina and rests against the back of the vagina to create an image. A transvaginal ultrasound produces a sharper image and is often used in early pregnancy.
Inflammation and swelling along the spinal cord with motor or sensory nerve dysfunction.
The part of the intestine that lies horizontally in the abdomen, running straight across the abdomen from right to left.
Trauma to the nervous system requires immediate clinical care.
Trauma and Injury Prevention Program
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin is certified as a Level I pediatric trauma center, able to provide the best possible care to the most critically injured children. This includes a trauma team, the trauma service as well as prevention, education and research initiatives.
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin is certified as a Level I pediatric trauma center, able to provide the best possible care to the most critically injured children. The American College of Surgeons grants Level I certification to hospitals that provide not only the highest quality of care to their patients, but are actively involved in injury prevention activities, continued research and education.
Trauma to the Nervous System
Trauma to the nervous system requires immediate clinical care.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
A head injury.
Very common type of vaginitis caused by a single-celled organism usually transmitted during sexual contact.
Is an impulse control disorder characterized by the repeated urge to pull out scalp hair, eyelashes, eyebrows or other body hair. It is believed to be related to obsessive-compulsive disorder. It also is known as hair pulling.
Tricuspid Atresia (TA)
A congenital heart defect in which the tricuspid valve and right ventricle do not develop properly, preventing oxygen-poor (blue) blood from reaching the lungs via its normal pathway.
The heart valve that controls blood flow from the right atrium into the right ventricle.
A fat-like substance found in the blood.
A form of craniosynostosis that results in a triangular configuration of the skull. Trigonocephaly is the premature fusion of the two halves of the frontal bones at the metopic suture.
A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which regulates metabolism; exerts the same biological effects as thyroxine, but is generally more potent and the onset of its effect is more rapid.
The same triplet of the DNA alphabet or gene(s) repeated several times in a row.
Having three copies of one chromosome, rather than two copies. Refers to an aneuploidy or wrong number of chromosomes. With trisomy there are too many chromosomes. Rather than having a normal pair or two there are three chromosomes of a specific numbered pair. An example is trisomy 21 or down syndrome in which there are three number 21 chromosomes.
The presence of three #13 chromosomes. This condition is associated with severe health problems, birth defects and is typically fatal (one week to one year of age). It is also known as patau syndrome.
The presence of three #18 chromosomes. This condition is associated with severe health problems, birth defects and is typically fatal (one week to one year of age). It is also known as edwards syndrome.
The presence of three #21 chromosomes in each cell of the body, rather than the usual pair (causes features otherwise known as down syndrome). This condition is much milder than trisomy 13 or 18. It is also known as down syndrome.
A congenital heart defect involving incomplete separation of the great arteries (the aorta and the pulmonary artery) during the time the heart is forming prior to birth.
Refers to a pregnancy that is developing in a fallopian tube rather than in the uterus. This is a surgical emergency when discovered as the tubes will only expand minimally and then the tube is at risk to burst.
Tube Feeding Clinic
The Gastroenterology (GI) staff provides comprehensive, multidisciplinary care for pediatric patients throughout Wisconsin, Illinois and Michigan. In addition, the program serves as a national and international referral source for treatment and management of both complex and common GI problems.
An infectious disease that was once a major killer worldwide. The predominant TB organism is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Spread person-to-person in airborne droplets caused by sneezing or coughing, the bacteria usually infects the lungs. However, due to improved nutrition, housing, sanitation, medical care, and the introduction of antibiotics this century, reported TB cases in the US have declined dramatically.
Growths, called tubers, are often found growing inside of the brain and retinal area of the eye. Tuberous sclerosis affects many organs in the body including the brain, spinal cord, lungs, heart, kidneys, skin and skeletal bones in the child. Mental retardation, developmental delays, seizures and learning disabilities are also associated with this disease.
An abnormal lump or mass of tissue. Tumors can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Genes that slow down cell division or cause cells to die at the appropriate time. Alterations of these genes can lead to too much cell growth and development of cancer.
The presence of a single X chromosome in girls, leaving 45 total chromosomes. This condition is associated with short stature, infertility and other birth defects.
Means two babies. They can be fraternal meaning two eggs were fertilized and they will not look alike and may be opposite sex. They can be identical meaning one egg was fertilized and split. They will look alike and are the same sex.
Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion Sequence
Twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAP sequence), also known as acardiac twinning, is a rare condition that occurs in pregnancies of identical twins that share one placenta.
Twin-to-twin Transfusion Syndrome
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is an imbalance in the blood flow between identical twins who share one placenta.
Two-Two-Q-One-One-Dot-Two (22q11.2) Deletion Syndrome
A genetic disease caused by a missing piece of chromosome material on chromosome #22 that results in many different health problems, and affects the normal fetal development of the heart, thymus, and parathyroid glands. It is also known as DiGeorge syndrome, Shprintzen syndrome and Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome (VCFS). Children's Hospital of Wisconsin offers a multidisciplinary clinic designed to address the various medical, educational and psychosocial needs of the children and their families with these syndromes.
A thin membrane in the middle ear that carries sound vibrations to the inner ear. It is also known as eardrum.
A test that can be performed in most physician offices to help determine how the middle ear is functioning. It does not tell if the child is hearing or not, but helps to detect any changes in pressure in the middle ear. This is a difficult test to perform in younger children because the child needs to sit very still and not be crying, talking, or moving. It is also known as impedance audiometry.
Surgical repair of the eardrum (tympanic membrane) or bones of the middle ear.
Small tubes that are surgically placed into your child's eardrum by an ear, nose and throat surgeon. It is also known as ventilation tubes, myringotomy tubes or ear tubes.
Type 1 Diabetes
An autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system destroys, or attempts to destroy, the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 to 10 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in the US. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but can start at any age. It is also known as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM).
Type 2 Diabetes
A metabolic disorder resulting from the body's inability to produce enough, or to properly use, insulin. It has previously been called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Without enough insulin, the body cannot move blood sugar into the cells. It is a chronic disease with no known cure.
An inherited disorder that causes severe liver disease in infancy.