Conditions & Topics (A - Z)
Select from the alphabetical list to find the symptom or condition you're looking for.
The portion of the eye that allows us to see fine details clearly.
Faint, red marks that appear in the skin at birth. Angel's kisses are marks on the forehead and eyelids. Stork bites are marks on the back of the neck.
The smaller version of a patch - a flat discolored spot.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radio frequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.
Classified as a type of affective disorder (or mood disorder) that goes beyond the day's ordinary ups and downs, and has become a serious medical condition and important health concern in this country. It is also known as clinical depression or unipolar depression.
Problems with how the small intestine absorbs nutrients from the foods we eat.
A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted person-to-person by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. These mosquitoes are present in the tropics and subtropics in almost all countries. Malaria is the most deadly of all tropical parasitic diseases.
A term used to describe cancerous tumors which tend to grow rapidly, can invade and destroy nearby normal tissues and can spread.
A rare, but sometimes deadly, skin cancer that begins as a mole that turns cancerous.
A situation caused by eating a poorly balanced diet, or by not eating enough food to meet the body's needs.
An orthodontic or orthognathic problem that means "bad bite," including crowded, missing, or crooked teeth, extra teeth or a misaligned jaw.
A low-dose x-ray of the breast.
The lower jaw.
A mood disorder which may be characterized by extreme elation, impulsivity, irritability, rapid speech, nervousness, distractibility and/or poor judgment.
Classified as a type of affective disorder (or mood disorder) that goes beyond the day's ordinary ups and downs. Manic depression is characterized by periodic episodes of extreme elation, elevated mood or irritability (also called mania) countered by periodic, classic depressive symptoms. It is also known as bipolar disorder.
Maple Syrup Urine Disease
An inherited disorder caused by an inability of the body to properly process certain parts of protein called amino acids.
A genetic disorder which affects the connective tissue of the body. It causes dilation of blood vessels and abnormalities of cardiac valves.
Marfan Syndrome Clinic
Children and adults with Marfan Syndrome and other related connective tissue disorders are provided coordinated care through the Herma Heart Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin.
Known DNA sequences used to track a gene in a family.
Marriage and Family Therapist
A licensed clinician who specializes in applying psychotherapeutic and marital or family systems theories and techniques in the assessment, marital or family diagnosis, prevention, treatment or resolution of a cognitive, affective, behavioral, nervous or mental disorder of an individual, couple or family.
Massage and Acupuncture Services
The Jane B. Pettit Pain and Palliative Care Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin offers massage and acupuncture to all children who seek these unique services. Children do not need to be Pain Clinic patients.
Cells, which synthesize and store histamines, found in most body tissues, particularly just below the epithelial surfaces, serous cavities and around blood vessels. In an allergic response, an allergen stimulates the release of antibodies, which attach themselves to mast cells.
Masters Family Speech and Hearing Center
The Masters Family Speech and Hearing Center includes the Speech Clinic, Audiology Clinic and Auditory Processing Clinic and cares for children with a wide range of speech, language and feeding/swallowing problems.
Inflammation of breast tissue.
Back portion of the temporal bone behind the ear.
An inflammation or infection of the mastoid bone, which is a portion of the temporal bone. Mastoiditis can be a mild infection or can develop into life-threatening complications. It is usually a complication of acute otitis media (middle ear infection).
Maternal And Fetal Testing
To evaluate the health of a pregnancy and fetus, there are many types of prenatal tests that may be performed.
Maternal Serum AFP (MSAFP)
A blood test that measures the level of alpha-fetoprotein in the mothers' blood during pregnancy. It is also known as alpha-feto protein (AFP) screening.
A learning disorder in which a child has problems with skills related to numbers such as counting, copying numbers correctly, adding and carrying numbers, learning multiplication tables, recognizing mathematical signs, and understanding mathematical operations.
Maturity-Onset Diabetes In The Young (MODY)
A group of diseases characterized by inherited early-onset diabetes (between age 9 and 25) coupled with B-cell dysfunction (a cell that originates in the bone marrow and plays a major role in the body's immune response). Three genetic mutations have been identified that appear to cause three versions of MODY (MODY 1, MODY 2, and MODY 3).
The upper jaw.
A very contagious viral illness characterized by a distinct rash and a fever; spread through airborne droplets of nasal secretions. It is also known as 10-day measles, red measles or rubeola.
Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Vaccine
Measles, mumps and rubella vaccines prevent these diseases. Most children who receive their shots will be protected during childhood. A combination vaccine is given to babies and children and provides protection against all three diseases.
An artificial valve used to replace a diseased or defective valve, most often the aortic valve.
The pressure of air from breathing machines, suctioning of the airways, use of an endotracheal tube (ET tube - a tube placed in the trachea and connected to a breathing machine).
When a babies breathing effort is not effective enough to keep the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels within an appropriate range they may need some assistance with breathing provided by a breathing machine.
A small pouch in the wall of the large intestine, which usually do not cause a problem unless it becomes irritated or infected. It is also known as diverticulum.
The first stool a baby passes after he/she is born. This stool is very dark, thick and sticky. Occasionally a baby will start to pass this stool before he/she is born (often times due to stress related to labor) and it is found in the amniotic fluid.
Meconium is the first stool a baby passes after he/she is born. This stool is very dark, thick and sticky. Occasionally a baby will start to pass this stool before he/she is born (often times due to stress related to labor) and it is found in the amniotic fluid. If a baby breathes this thick, sticky stool into their lungs at the time of birth and their first breath, it is called meconium aspiration. Meconium aspiration can cause a baby to become very sick.
Medial (middle or center) angle of the eye.
An incision in the center of the chest, from the top to the bottom of the breastbone, used for many congenital heart defect repair surgeries.
Megaloblastic (Pernicious) Anemia
A rare blood disorder in which the body does not absorb enough vitamin B-12 from the digestive tract, resulting in an inadequate amount of red blood cells (RBCs) produced.
An expanded or widened ureter that does not function normally. The size of a megaureter is usually greater than 7 millimeters in diameter.
The cell division process that eggs and sperm go through which halves the chromosome number from 46 to 23.
A pigment that determines skin color.
Cells present in the epidermis that produce melanin (skin pigment).
Dark, brown, symmetrical patches of pigment on the face.
Refers to a thin layer of tissue. With an omphalocele this layer is the tissue of the umbilical cord.
A young woman's first menstrual period.
The idea of inheritance was first described by an Austrian monk whose name was Gregor Mendel. Mendel performed experiments on garden peas to understand inheritance patterns.
Mendelian Inheritance Disorders
A single gene disorder. In these disorders, a single gene is responsible for a defect or abnormality. Single gene disorders usually have greater risks of inheritance.
Membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.
An inflammation of the covering of the brain and spinal cord.
A moderate form of spina bifida in which a fluid-filled sac is visible outside of the back area. The sac does not contain the spinal cord or nerves.
Caused by a group of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis. The most common forms of meningococcal infections include meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord) and blood stream infections.
A cyclical process of the endometrium shedding its lining, along with discharge from the cervix and vagina, from the vaginal opening. This process results from the mature egg cell (ovum) not being fertilized by a sperm cell as it travels from one of the ovaries down a fallopian tube to the uterus, in the process called ovulation.
Many children and adolescents have mental health problems that interfere with their normal development and daily life activities. Some mental health problems are mild, while others are more severe. Some mental health problems last for only short periods of time, while others, potentially, last a lifetime.
Diagnostic tests that evaluate the absence or lack of a specific enzyme (i.e., amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates) that are necessary to maintain the normal chemical function of the body.
The chemical activity that occurs in cells, releasing energy from nutrients, or using energy to create other substances, such as proteins.
The spread of tumor cells in other areas of the body.
A common, congenital (present at birth) foot deformity that causes the front half of the foot, or forefoot, to turn inward. It is also known as metatarsus varus.
A common, congenital (present at birth) foot deformity that causes the front half of the foot, or forefoot, to turn inward. It is also known as metatarsus adductus.
Milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood.
A condition, present at birth, in which the head is much smaller than normal for an infant of that age and gender.
A small or underdeveloped chin.
Smallness of the tongue.
Abnormal smallness of the lower jaw. It is also known as Pierre Robin.
Micrognathia/Pierre Robin, prenatal diagnosis of:
Through the use of prenatal ultrasound (examining the fetus using ultrasound imaging before birth) the diagnosis of some birth defects can be detected. With this knowledge, families can seek out information which will allow them to participate more fully in decision making and planning care for their infant. It provides them opportunity to plan for delivery at an institution that is able to care for both mother and baby which avoids the trauma of transport and separation. Micrognathia is abnormal smallness of the lower jaw. It is part of the syndrome known as Pierre Robin.
A normally structured penis that is below the normal size range for an infant.
Part of the ear that includes the eardrum and three tiny bones of the middle ear, ending at the round window that leads to the inner ear.
Middle Ear Fluid
Fluid in the middle ear that causes conductive hearing loss.
Middle Ear Infection
Inflammation of the middle ear caused by infection. It is also known as otitis media (OM).
Tiny, white, hard spots that look like pimples on a newborn's nose.
Minimally Invasive Surgery
Any technique involved in surgery that does not require a large incision. It is also known as endoscopy, abdominoscopy or laparoscopy.
Constriction of the pupil.
The loss of the fetus up to 12 weeks of pregnancy. Most miscarriages occur in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy and are usually due to fetal abnormalities.
When a change in a gene from the mitochondria results in a trait or disease, the resulting condition is passed only from a mother to her children.
The cell division process that eggs and sperm go through which halves the chromosome number from 46 to 23 to replicate.
The valve that controls blood flow between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart.
Mitral Valve Prolapse
An abnormality of the valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart that causes backward flow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium.
Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder
A communication disorder that identifies developmental delays and difficulties in the ability to understand spoken language and produce speech.
Mold is a member of the fungus family. It is a branching-type of growth called hyphae. It is rarely destroyed by heat or cold exposure, but remains dormant until a particular season, such as spring or fall, when it grows and thrives.
Mold spores or fragments may be inhaled through the nose and into the lungs where they cause allergic reactions or asthma.
Small skin marks caused by pigment-producing cells in the skin. It is also known as nevi.
A viral disease of the skin that causes small pink or skin-colored bumps on your child's skin.
Bluish-black marks on the lower back and buttocks; affects mainly African-American or Asian children.
Characterized by swollen lymph glands and fatigue. It is also known as infectious mononucleosis, glandular fever or mononucleosis.
Characterized by swollen lymph glands and fatigue. It is also known as glandular fever, infectious mononucleosis or "mono."
Having a single copy of a chromosome or gene(s), rather than the usual pair.
Dietary fats, such as olive oil or canola oil, that may lower LDL cholesterol levels.
A category of mental health problems which includes depressive disorders. It is also known as affective disorder.
A type of diaphragmatic hernia (DH) which involves an opening on the right side of the diaphragm. The liver and intestines usually move up into the chest cavity.
Involuntary movement of arms and legs that occurs when a newborn is startled by a loud sound or movement. It is also known as a startle reflex.
Mosaic Down Syndrome
An example of mosaicism is mosaic Down syndrome. clinically, babies born with mosaic Down syndrome can have the same features and health problems seen in babies born with trisomy 21 or translocation Down syndrome. However, the presence of cells with the normal number of chromosomes (46) may result in a less severe presentation or fewer characteristics of Down syndrome.
The presence of two or more chromosome patterns in the cells of a person, resulting in two or more cell lines (i.e., some with 46 chromosomes, others with 47).
The movement of food through the digestive tract, aided by contractions of muscles in the stomach and intestines known as peristalsis.
Elongation of the shape of a baby's head due to delivery through the birth canal.
Movement Disorders Clinic
The Movement Disorders Clinic offers a comprehensive evaluation of spasticity, dystonia and paroxysmal movements that are not epileptic in nature. The clinic offers the latest treatments and therapies. Deep brain stimulation, if necessary, is performed in collaboration with Froedtert & The Medical College of Wisconsin.
Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
The most common form of vasculitis that primary affects children. An immune system disorder affecting the heart, particularly the coronary arteries. The disease produces irritation and inflammation of many tissues of the body, including the hands, feet, whites of the eyes, mouth, lips and throat. It is also known as Kawasaki disease.
Inflammation of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract.
Describes drainage or secretions that are made of mucus.
A thick, jelly-like substance made by the intestines and other organs of the body (such as the nose), that helps coat and protect the lining of the organ. Mucus also helps stool pass through the large intestine and rectum more easily.
An inheritance pattern involving both genetic and environmental factors.
An acute and highly contagious viral illness that usually occurs in childhood. Spread by airborne droplets from the upper respiratory tract, the disease usually takes two to three weeks to appear.
A blowing or rasping sound heard while listening to the heart that may or may not indicate problems within the heart or circulatory system.
Muscular Dystrophy (MD)
Is a broad term that describes a genetic (inherited) disorder of the muscles. MD causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time. The most common form of MD is called Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD).
Muscular Dystrophy (MD) Clinic
The Muscular Dystrophy Clinic and Pediatric Neuromuscular Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin offers a comprehensive approach to the diagnosis and management of all types of motor disorders, including muscular dystrophy. Children's Hospital offers the latest treatments and therapies to muscular dystrophy patients and those with neuromuscular diseases.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. It is an unpredictable condition that can be relatively benign, disabling, or devastating. Some individuals with MS may be mildly affected, while others may lose their ability to write, speak, or walk when communication between the brain and other parts of the body becomes disrupted.
One cause of deformational plagiocephaly may be muscular torticollis. Muscular torticollis is a congenital (present at birth) finding in which one or more of the neck muscles is extremely tight, causing the head to tilt and/or turn in the same direction. Torticollis is often associated with the development of plagiocephaly since the infant holds his/her head against the mattress in the same position repeatedly.
The complex system that include: bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles and nerves.
A change in the DNA that codes for a gene, which causes a normal working gene to become a non-working gene.
Myasthenia Gravis (MG)
A life-long condition in which the body's immune system fights its own body. This causes problems with the nerves that provide communication to the muscles resulting in muscle weakness. This disease affects the voluntary muscles of the body that include the face, neck, chest, arms and legs.
Dilation of the pupil.
A condition, present at birth, that can affect the development of the back bones, spinal cord, surrounding nerves, and the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the spinal cord. This neurological condition can cause a portion of the spinal cord and the surrounding structures to develop outside, instead of inside, the body. The sac-like lesion can occur anywhere along the spine. It is also known as spina bifida.
A type of leukemia in which the cancer develops in the granulocytes or monocytes (myeloid cells).
An x-ray of the spine, similar to an angiogram. A procedure that uses dye injected into the spinal canal to make the structure clearly visible on x-rays.
A severe form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord and nerves develop outside of the body and are contained in a fluid-filled sac that is visible outside of the back area. These babies typically have weakness and loss of sensation below the defect. Problems with bowel and bladder function are also common. A majority of babies with myelomeningocele will also have hydrocephalus, a condition that causes the fluid inside of the head to build up, causing pressure inside of the head to increase and the skull bones to expand to a larger than normal size.
Diseases in which the bone marrow produces too many of one of the three types of blood cells: red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all the tissues in the body; white blood cells, which fight infection; and platelets, which makes blood clot.
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
Occurs when one of more regions of the heart muscle experience a severe or prolonged decrease in oxygen supply caused by a blocked blood flow to the heart muscle. It is also known as a heart attack.
Insufficient blood flow to part of the heart.
Inflammation of the heart muscles.
The muscular layer of the heart.
An inherited autosomal dominant disorder that causes muscle weakness and myotonia (inability of muscles to relax after use), which becomes more severe over time.
Surgical procedure to remove infection from the mastoid bone.
Small tubes that are surgically placed into your child's eardrum by an ear, nose and throat surgeon. It is also known as ventilation tubes, tympanostomy tubes or ear tubes.