Conditions & Topics (A - Z)
Select from the alphabetical list to find the symptom or condition you're looking for.
Organ of balance located in the inner ear. The labyrinth consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule.
An enzyme in the small intestine needed to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and milk products.
Lack of an enzyme made by the small intestine called lactase, which prevents the body from digesting lactose (a sugar found in milk and milk products) properly.
A nurse or other health care provider specially trained to help women with breastfeeding. Has expertise related to breastfeeding, all aspects. They are also known as International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLC).
Lactation Management Service
The Lactation Management Service at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin was developed to meet the needs of breastfeeding mothers and their babies to promote a successful breastfeeding experience. Staff also assists mothers that express their milk (remove milk from their breasts) and their babies to promote successful breast milk feeding. The service provides educational and support services to families and staff.
Lactose Breath Hydrogen Test
To determine if your child is intolerant to lactose, a sugar present in milk and milk products.
A person with lactose intolerance lacks an enzyme that is needed to digest milk sugar, which causes symptoms such as gas, bloating, and abdominal pain. Lactose intolerance is not an allergic reaction, as it does not involve the immune system.
Lactose Tolerance Test
A test that checks the body's ability to digest lactose (a sugar found in milk and milk products). The child drinks a liquid with lactose in it, and then the amount of lactose in the bloodstream is measured with a blood sample.
System for communicating ideas and feelings using sounds, gestures, signs or marks.
Problems with verbal communication and the ability to use or understand the symbol system for interpersonal communication.
Soft, downy hair on a baby's body
A tube with a light and camera lens attached at the end to examine organs and check for abnormalities. Often used in surgery to look inside the body and avoid making large incisions.
This procedure uses several small incisions and a camera called a laparoscope to look inside the abdomen during the operation. Under anesthesia, the instruments the surgeon uses to remove the appendix are placed through several small incisions and the laparoscope is placed through another incision. This method is not usually performed if the appendix has ruptured.
A procedure that uses a tube with a light and a camera lens at the end (laparoscope) to examine organs, check for abnormalities, or perform minimally invasive surgeries. Laparoscopy is a surgery which avoids making large incisions. Tissue samples may also be taken for examination and testing.
An operation to remove the gallbladder. The physician inserts a laparoscope, and other surgical instruments, through small holes in the abdomen. The camera allows the physician to see the gallbladder on a television screen. The physician removes the gallbladder through the holes.
The removal of pelvic lymph nodes with a laparoscope done through four small incisions in the lower abdominal region.
Large For Gestational Age (LGA)
A term used to describe babies who are born weighing more than the usual amount for the number of weeks of pregnancy.
The last section of the digestive tract, from the cecum to the rectum. Absorbs water from digested food and processes it into stool. It is also known as colon.
Hoarse voice or complete loss of the voice because of irritation to the vocal folds (vocal cords) or inflammation and swelling of the lining of the larynx.
Laryngomalacia is a birth defect of the larynx (voice box). A weakness in the structures in the larynx can cause stridor. Stridor is a high-pitched sound that is heard best when the child breaths in. Laryngomalacia and stridor are treated in the Airway, Digestive and Voice Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin.
Inspecting the larynx (voice box) with a small, flexible tube with a light and a camera lens at the end (endoscope).
A cylindrical grouping of cartilage, muscles and soft tissue which contains the vocal cords. The vocal cords are the upper opening into the windpipe (trachea), the passageway to the lungs. It is also known as voice box.
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin dermatologists use a pulsed dye laser to treat children with certain dermatology conditions.
Using a device which emits a beam of light radiation, surgeons can cauterize a wound, repair damaged tissue or cut through tissue.
Laser surgery uses a narrow beam of light to remove cancer cells, and is often used with tumors located on the outer layer of skin.
Lateral (side) angle of the eye.
Lateral Facial Dysplasia
A condition in which the tissues on one side of the face are underdeveloped, affecting primarily the ear (aural), mouth (oral), and jaw (mandibular) areas. Sometimes, both sides of the face can be affected and may involve the skull, as well as the face. It is also known as hemifacial microsomia (HFM), goldenhar syndrome, brachial arch syndrome, facio-auriculo-vertebral syndrome or oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum.
Some children have an allergy or sensitivity to latex (rubber). Reactions can be seen when products made from latex come in contact with the child's skin, mucous membranes in the mouth, genitals, bladder, or rectum or the bloodstream (during surgery). Some children may also react when blowing up a rubber balloon or breathing in powder from the inside of latex gloves.
A chemical compound with chemical formula N2O. Under room conditions it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant slightly sweet odor. It is commonly known as "laughing gas" due to the exhilarating effects of inhaling it, and because it can cause spontaneous laughter in some users. It is used in surgery and dentistry for its anaesthetic and analgesic effects. Nitrous oxide is present in the atmosphere where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. It is also known as nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen monoxide (N2O) or dinitrogen oxide (N2O).
The reduction or dimming of vision in an eye that appears to be normal. It is also known as amblyopia.
Lead poisoning can affect just about every system in the body yet often produces no definitive symptoms.
Are characterized by difficulties in an academic area (either reading, mathematics or written expression) such that the child's ability to achieve in the specific academic area is below what is expected for the child's age, schooling and level of intelligence. Learning disorders are diagnosed and treated in the Child Development Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin.
Lebers Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON)
A disorder of central vision loss caused by a gene inherited from the mother's mitochondria.
Left Atrium (LA)
The upper left-hand chamber of the heart. It receives oxygen-rich (red) blood from the lungs via the four pulmonary veins and then sends this blood to the left ventricle.
The lower left-hand chamber of the heart. It receives oxygen-rich (red) blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta, which takes the blood to the body. The left ventricle must be strong and muscular in order to pump enough blood to the body to meet its requirements.
A temporary condition in children in which the head, or "ball," of the thigh bone, referred to as the femoral head, loses its blood supply. As a result, the "ball" of the thigh bone collapses. The body will absorb the dead tissue and replace the dead bone cells with new bone cells. The new bone cells will eventually reshape the "ball" of the thigh bone. This condition causes the hip joint to become painful and stiff for a period of time.
The transparent structure inside the eye that focuses light rays onto the retina. It is also known as crystalline lens.
An injury or wound.
A term to refer to an anomaly that is not compatible with life, uniformly results in death.
A cancer of the blood-forming tissue. Leukemic cells look different than normal cells and do not function properly.
Blood cells involved in the destruction of viruses, bacteria, and fungi which cause infection. It is also known as white blood cells (WBCs).
Tiny parasites that can infest the skin; characterized by intense itching.
Skin that has thickened.
A white, shiny, flexible band of fibrous tissue that binds joints together and connects various bones and cartilage. Tough, elastic bands of connective tissue around a joint.
Linear Skull Fracture
Skull fracture that accounts for almost 70 percent of all skull fractures. In a linear fracture, there is a break in the bone, but it does not move the bone. Children are usually observed in the hospital for a brief amount of time, and can usually resume normal activities in a few days. No interventions are usually necessary.
The Lipid-Metabolic Clinic is part of the Diabetes and Endocrine Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin and treats children with conditions such as growth disorders and thyroid problems.
A fatty substance in the blood. A white solution that contains the fats.
Transporters of fatty substances in the blood.
Round or oval lumps under the skin caused by fatty deposits.
A digestive organ located on the right side of the abdomen, under the ribs. Has many important functions, including storing and helping make blood, making bile (which aids in the digestion of fats in the food we eat), processing medicines and removing toxins from the bloodstream and changing food and fats stored in our bodies into energy.
Helps diagnose liver diseases. A small sample of liver tissue is obtained with a special biopsy needle and examined for abnormalities.
Liver Disease Clinic
Staff members in the Liver Disease Clinic at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin see patients with a variety of liver problems and are experts in liver disease. We focus on family-centered care and use a multidisciplinary team approach to provide education, support and ongoing management to our ongoing patients.
Liver Function Tests
Blood tests that indicate how well the liver is working.
An operation performed to replace a diseased liver with a healthy one from another person. An entire liver may be transplanted, or just a section. The liver may come from an organ donor, or from a family member who is willing to donate a part of their liver and is a suitable candidate to donate.
Liver Transplant Clinic
The pediatric liver transplant program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin provides medical care to pediatric patients before and after liver transplantation. Patients are followed closely into adulthood by the transplant team.
Liver Transplant Program
Children's Hospital of Wisconsin has a longstanding regional reputation for innovation and expertise in comprehensive care for a variety of liver problems and liver disease. The interdisciplinary team provides diagnosis, treatment and care management as well as education and support for pediatric patients with a variety of conditions.
A roundish projection of any structure. In the breast, lobes of the mammary glands radiate from the central area to the nipple area like wheel spokes.
Removal of an entire lobe of the lung, for cancer, benign tumors or infections.
A subdivision of a lobe in the breast.
Anesthetic medicine injected into the site of the operation to temporarily numb that area.
A tumor which can invade the tissues surrounding it by sending out "fingers" of cancerous cells into normal tissue.
A curvature of the back bones (vertebrae) in the lower back area, giving the child a "swayback" appearance.
Refers to a baby weighing less than 2,500 grams (5.5 pounds) at birth.
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
The primary cholesterol-carrying substance in the body. In large amounts, it accumulates inside arteries.
Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES)
A muscle at the top portion of the stomach that relaxes to allow food to pass from the esophagus to the stomach when we eat, and closes to keep food from moving back into the esophagus from the stomach.
Lower, inferior, less mobile, fold of skin that covers the front of the eyeball when closed.
Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Series
A study that looks at the rectum, the large intestine, and the lower part of the small intestine. A fluid called barium that shows up well on x-rays is given into the rectum as an enema. X-rays of the abdomen shows strictures (narrowed areas), obstructions (blockages) and other problems. It is also known as barium x-rays.
Those vertebrae located in the lower back area.
A special needle is placed into the lower back, into the spinal canal. This is the area around the spinal cord. The pressure in the spinal canal and brain can then be measured. A small amount of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) can be removed and sent for testing to determine if there is an infection or other problems. CSF is the fluid that bathes your child's brain and spinal cord. It is also known as spinal tap and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) analysis.
The hollow area inside a blood vessel.
A surgical procedure to remove a tumor and surrounding tissue.
The amount of air the lungs hold.
An autoimmune disorder characterized by periodic episodes of inflammation of joints, tendons and other connective tissues and organs. It is also known Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE).
Lyme Disease (LD)
A multi-stage, multi-system bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, a spiral-shaped bacterium that is most commonly transmitted by a tick bite.
Part of the lymphatic system. A thin, clear fluid that circulates through the lymphatic vessels and carries blood cells that fight infection and disease.
Lymph Node Biopsy
A sample of tissue is removed from the lymph node and examined under a microscope.
Part of the lymphatic system; bean-shaped organs, found in the underarm, groin, neck and abdomen, that act as filters for the lymph fluid as it passes through them.
Part of the lymphatic system. Thin tubes that carry lymph fluid throughout the body.
The term for swelling of the lymph nodes - the bean-shaped organs found in the underarm, groin, neck, chest and abdomen that act as filters for the lymph fluid as it circulates through the body.
An imaging study that can detect cancer cells or abnormalities in the lymphatic system and structures. It involves a dye being injected to the lymph system.
A raised, yellow-tan or red mark in the skin made up of enlarged lymphatic vessels. It is also known as lymphatic malformation.
A raised, yellow-tan or red mark in the skin made up of enlarged lymphatic vessels. It is also known as lymphangioma.
Part of the immune system. Includes lymph, ducts, organs, lymph vessels, lymphocytes and lymph nodes, whose function is to produce and carry white blood cells to fight disease and infection.
Accounts for about 75 to 80 percent of the childhood leukemias. In this form of the disease, the lymphocyte cell line is affected. The lymphocytes normally fight infection. With acute lymphocytic leukemia, the bone marrow makes too many of these lymphocytes and they do not mature correctly. It is also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) or lymphoid.
Lymphoblastic Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Accounts for about 35 percent of the cases, involves the T-cells, and usually presents with a mass in the chest, swollen lymph node(s), with or without bone marrow and central nervous system involvement.
Any one of a group of white blood cells of crucial importance to the adaptive part of the body's immune system, involved in fighting infection and disease.
A type of leukemia in which the cancer develops in the lymphocytes (lymphoid cells).
Accounts for about 75 to 80 percent of the childhood leukemias. In this form of the disease, the lymphocyte cell line is affected. The lymphocytes normally fight infection. With acute lymphocytic leukemia, the bone marrow makes too many of these lymphocytes and they do not mature correctly. It is also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) or lymphoblastic.
There are many different disorders that affect a child's immune system. Many of these diseases are treated in the Primary Immunodeficiency Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. They also are known as immunodeficiencies, immune deficiencies, primary immunodeficiencies, or primary immune deficiencies.
Basic body chemicals necessary for proper cell function. These include sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium. May refer to the blood test to assess the levels of these chemicals. Minerals in the bloodstream and in the cells of the body, such as sodium (salt), potassium, and calcium. Electrolytes must remain in proper balance for the body to function normally. It is also known as electrolytes.