Conditions & Topics (A - Z)
Select from the alphabetical list to find the symptom or condition you're looking for.
Medications used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) that decrease the amount of acid made by the stomach. The stomach lining has sites that react to a chemical normally found in the body called histamine. When histamine attaches to these sites, the stomach produces acid that aids in digestion of food. H2 blockers prevent the stomach from reacting to histamine, thereby decreasing stomach acid.
Represents a group of bacteria that may cause different types of infections in infants and children. H. influenzae most commonly causes ear, eye, or sinus infections and pneumonia. It is also known as haemophilus influenzae.
Bacteria found in the stomach that can damage the lining of the stomach and upper small intestine, leading to ulcer formation. It is also known as helicobacter pylori.
Represents a group of bacteria that may cause different types of infections in infants and children. Haemophilus influenzae most commonly causes ear, eye, or sinus infections and pneumonia. It is also known as H. influenzae.
Is an impulse control disorder characterized by the repeated urge to pull out scalp hair, eyelashes, eyebrows or other body hair. It is believed to be related to obsessive-compulsive disorder. It also is known as Trichotillomania.
It is also known as alopecia.
An oral health condition characterized by consistently odorous breath.
A strong perception of an event or object when no such situation is present; may occur in any of the senses (i.e., visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory or tactile).
The roof of the mouth.
Harlequin Color Change
A normal change in a newborn baby's color due to immaturity of the circulation.
An inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the nose, often due to allergy to pollen, dust, or other airborne substances. Hay fever causes sneezing, itching, a runny nose and nasal congestion. It is also known as rhinitis.
Pain or discomfort in the head or face area. Headaches can be single or recurrent in nature, and localized to one or more areas of the head and face.
New patient visits at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin last an hour to an hour and a half. Goals are to identify the type of headache, prescribe appropriate medications and suggest lifestyle changes, if necessary, to help families manage the child's headaches. A pediatric psychologist is a consultant for the clinic to teach relaxation and biofeedback exercises.
Measurement of head size or distance around the baby's head. Should gradually increase as the baby eats and grows. Too rapid of an increase may need further evaluation for complications such as hydrocephalus.
A broad term that describes a vast array of injuries that occur to the scalp, skull, brain, and underlying tissue and blood vessels in the child's head. Head injuries are also commonly referred to as brain injury, or traumatic brain injury (TBI), depending on the extent of the head trauma.
Series of events in which sound waves in the air are converted to electrical signals and are then sent as nerve impulses to the brain where they are interpreted.
Electronic devices that brings amplified sound to the ear.
Disruption in the normal hearing process; sound waves are not converted to electrical signals and nerve impulses are not transmitted to the brain to be interpreted.
Can be categorized by many different types. Two types of hearing loss are sensorineural and conductive. Both types of hearing loss can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired.
Hearing Loss in Babies
According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), nearly 12,000 babies are born each year in the United States with a hearing impairment.
There are many different types of hearing tests that can be used to check your child's hearing. Some of them may be used on all ages, while others are used based on your child's age and level of understanding.
Heart-Lung Bypass Machine
A machine that performs for the heart and lungs during open heart surgery.
Occurs when one of more regions of the heart muscle experience a severe or prolonged decrease in oxygen supply caused by a blocked blood flow to the heart muscle. It is also known as myocardial infarction.
Interrupted electrical impulse to heart muscles.
The rate at which the heart beats per minute.
Heart Transplant Program
Decades of experience in mending children's hearts stands behind the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin heart transplant program. Children's Hospital is one of the country's top pediatric cardiothoracic surgery centers with more than 725 cases per year, more than 98 percent of all pediatric heart surgeries in Wisconsin. See our Quality Reports for information on our heart transplant clinic volumes.
Heart Valve Prolapse
A condition of the heart valve in which it is partially open when it should be closed.
One complete contraction of the heart.
Feeling of nausea, bloating, gas and/or heartburn caused by poor digestion. It is also known as indigestion.
The mildest form of heat injury and consist of painful muscle cramps and spasms that occur during or after intense exercise and sweating in high heat.
A form of heat-related illness that is more severe than heat cramps and results from a loss of water and salt in the body. It occurs in conditions of extreme heat and excessive sweating without adequate fluid and salt replacement. Heat exhaustion occurs when the body is unable to cool itself properly. If left untreated, heat exhaustion can progress to heat stroke.
The most severe form of heat injury and is a life-threatening emergency. It is the result of long, extreme exposure to the sun, in which a person does not sweat enough to lower body temperature.
Bacteria found in the stomach that can damage the lining of the stomach and upper small intestine, leading to ulcer formation. It is also known as H. pylori.
Is a type of birthmark. It is the most common benign (non-cancerous) tumor of the skin.
Hemangiomas of Infancy Clinic
This clinic provides comprehensive care for children with hemangiomas - the most common benign tumor of infancy. The lesions usually are seen soon after birth and grow for several months. Eventually the lesions will go away, but the process may take up to 10 years. Complications are rare but can be devastating if not treated in a timely and appropriate manner.
Bleeding into a joint.
The measurement of the percentage of red blood cells found in a specific volume of blood.
A physician who specializes in the functions and disorders of the blood.
The scientific study of blood and blood-forming tissues.
The Hematology, Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant Clinic at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin treats infants and children with blood disorders, childhood cancer, and cancer and other diseases affecting the bone marrow.
The process of producing and developing new blood cells.
The presence of red blood cells in the urine.
A condition in which the tissues on one side of the face are underdeveloped, affecting primarily the ear (aural), mouth (oral), and jaw (mandibular) areas. Sometimes, both sides of the face can be affected and may involve the skull, as well as the face. It is also known as Goldenhar syndrome, brachial arch syndrome, facio-auriculo-vertebral syndrome, oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum or lateral facial dysplasia.
Is performed in a dialysis center or hospital by trained healthcare professionals. A special type of access, called an arteriovenous (AV) fistula, is placed surgically, usually, in your child's arm. This involves joining an artery and a vein together. An external, central, intravenous (IV) catheter may also be inserted, but is less common for long term dialysis. After access has been established, your child will be connected to a large hemodialysis machine which drains your child's blood, bathes it in a special dialysate solution which removes waste substances and fluid, then returns it to your child's bloodstream. Hemodialysis is usually performed several times a week and lasts for four to five hours. Because of the length of time hemodialysis takes, it may be helpful to bring games or reading material for your child, in order to occupy him/her during this procedure.
A type of protein in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to the cells and tissues of the body.
Hemoglobin S-Beta Thalassemia
Having one copy of the gene which causes sickle cell anemia (HbS) and one copy of a mutated gene in the beta-chain of hemoglobin; this blood disorder produces a moderate anemia and some symptoms similar to sickle cell anemia.
The destruction of red blood cells by the body.
One type of anemia in which the red blood cells are destroyed prematurely.
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
A condition that occurs when there is an incompatibility between the blood types of the mother and baby, causing breaking down of red blood cells.
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
A rare kidney disorder that mostly affects children under the age of 10. It is often characterized by damage to the lining of blood vessel walls, destruction of red blood cells, and/or kidney failure.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)
There are many different disorders that affect a child's immune system. Many of these diseases are treated in the Primary Immunodeficiency Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. They also are known as immunodeficiencies, immune deficiencies, primary immunodeficiencies, or primary immune deficiencies.
A bleeding disorder caused by a gene on the X chromosome; an inherited bleeding disorder caused by low levels, or absence of, a blood protein that is essential for clotting; hemophilia A is caused by a lack of the blood clotting protein factor VIII; hemophilia B is caused by a deficiency of factor IX. It is also known as coagulation disorder.
A blood clotting disorder caused by a gene on the X chromosome.
A blood clotting disorder caused by a deficiency of factor IX.
Hemorrhage or postpartum hemmorhage
Refers to heavy and/or uncontrolled bleeding. Postpartum, or after delivery, loss of more than 500 cc/mL of blood is defined as postpartum hemorrhage. This loss of blood may occasionally be internal with no noted vaginal blood loss. This is a surgical emergency. Signs of a postpartum hemorrhage include decreased blood pressure, loss of consciousness, pale color, tachycardia (increased heart rate) and either a soft uterus or a firm, rigid abdomen.
Anemia caused by a sudden loss of a large amount of blood.
Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn
A bleeding problem that occurs in a newborn during the first few days of life caused by a deficiency in vitamin K.
Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP)
A form of vasculitis, a condition which involves inflammation of the blood vessels. Joints, intestines, kidneys and skin may be involved.
Relating to the liver.
Irritation of the liver by viruses, medicines, alcohol, or digestive diseases. May cause permanent damage to the liver.
Virus most often spread by unclean food and water.
Hepatitis B (HBV)
Virus commonly spread by sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, from mother to newborn at birth, or by using a needle that was used by an infected person. Hepatitis B is more common and much more easily spread than the AIDS virus and may lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Virus spread by blood transfusion and possibly by sexual intercourse or sharing needles with infected people. Hepatitis C may lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis C used to be called non-A, non-B hepatitis.
Hepatitis D (Delta)
Virus that occurs mostly in people who take illegal drugs by using needles. Only people who have hepatitis B can get hepatitis D.
Virus spread mostly through unclean water. This type of hepatitis is common in developing countries and has not occurred in the United States.
The newest form of infectious hepatitis. Transmission is believed to occur through blood and is seen in IV drug users, individuals with clotting disorders, such as hemophilia and individuals who require hemodialysis for renal failure.
Cancer that originates in the liver.
Herma Heart Center
Herma Heart Center at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin is one of the nation's top programs for medical and surgical treatment of congenital heart defects and children's heart disease. See our Quality Reports for information on the Herma Heart Center outcomes and statistics.
A person born with both ovarian and testicular tissues and internal reproductive organs.
A section of intestine or other internal organ that pushes through an opening in an abdominal muscle.
An operation done to repair a hernia.
An infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and usually spread by sexual contact. Symptoms may include painful blisters or open sores in the genital area, which may be preceded by a tingling or burning sensation in the legs, buttocks or genital region. The herpes sores usually disappear within a few weeks, but the virus remains in the body and the lesions may recur from time to time.
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
A virus which can affect the skin and central nervous system.
A common viral infection of the nerves, characterized by a painful skin rash of small blisters anywhere on the body. It is a reactivation of the chickenpox virus. It is also known as shingles.
High Blood Pressure
Blood pressure that is above the normal range. It is also known as hypertension.
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
The "good" cholesterol that promotes breakdown and removal of cholesterol from the body.
The breast milk produced at the end of the feeding. This milk is higher in fat and calories than the milk produced at the beginning of the feeding referred to as foremilk.
Hinge Joints (i.e. in the fingers, knees, elbows and toes)
Allow only bending and straightening movements.
Caused by malformation of a baby's large intestine during pregnancy. Some of the nerve cells that are normally present are missing, causing problems moving stool through the intestine. This can cause obstruction (blockage) of the intestine.
A chemical present in cells throughout the body that is released during an allergic reaction and causes inflammation and one of the substances responsible for the symptoms of allergy, such as itching, sneezing or wheezing.
The HIV Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin was the first community-based program of its kind in the country. It welcomes children, adolescents, women and their families. Because of the prevention and education efforts of our staff, only two babies have been born in Wisconsin with HIV since January 1998.
A condition in which red, itchy, and swollen areas appear on the skin - usually as an allergic reaction from eating certain foods or taking certain medications. It is also known as urticaria.
Abnormally rough or harsh-sounding voice caused by vocal abuse and other disorders.
A type of lymphoma, a cancer in the lymphatic system; Hodgkin's disease causes the cells in the lymphatic system to abnormally reproduce, eventually making the body less able to fight infection. Steady enlargement of lymph glands, spleen and other lymphatic tissue occurs.
A type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system and functions to fight disease and infections.
A portable EKG machine worn for a 24-hour period or longer to evaluate irregular, fast or slow heart rhythms while engaging in normal activities.
An inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of an enzyme necessary to digest an amino acid called methionine.
A blood vessel taken from a tissue donor, used to replace a defective blood vessel, most often the pulmonary artery or aorta.
Of, referring to or denoting the same sex.
Chemical substances created by the body that control numerous body functions.
As the kidneys of the fetus arise from the pelvic area they abnormally fuse together at the lower end or base. By fusing, they form a "U" shape, which gives it the name "horseshoe."
Literal meaning "a place of shelter." Today it refers to supportive care of a terminally ill patient.
Human Genome Project
A government funded project to sequence and map all of the human genes (30,000) on the 46 chromosomes.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
The virus that is responsible for causing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The virus destroys or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers.
Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs)
A group of viruses that can cause warts. Some HPVs are sexually transmitted and cause wart-like growths on the genitals. HPV is associated with some types of cancer and is a major risk factor for cervical cancer.
Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD)
A condition of premature infant lungs due to insufficient surfactant, a substance in the lungs that helps the air sacs stay open. It is also known as Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS).
Narrow passageway that allows blood to flow through the eye during development.
Refers to a greater than normal amount of amniotic fluid. This can be an indication of a problem with the baby especially with the gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestines) or the brain and spinal cord. It is also known as ployhydramnios.
Literally means "water on the brain." The lack of absorption, blockage of flow, or overproduction of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) that is found inside of the ventricles (fluid-filled areas) inside of the brain. This may result in a build up of fluid, which may cause the pressure inside of the head to increase and the skull bones to expand to a larger-than-normal appearance.
Hydrocephalus, prenatal diagnosis of:
Through the use of prenatal ultrasound (examining the fetus using ultrasound imaging before birth) the diagnosis of some birth defects can be detected. With this knowledge, families can seek out information which will allow them to participate more fully in decision making and planning care for their infant. It provides them opportunity to plan for delivery at an institution that is able to care for both mother and baby which avoids the trauma of transport and separation. Hydrocephalus literally means "water on the brain." It can be caused by a lack of absorption, blockage of flow, or overproduction of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Cerebral spinal fluid is produced and found inside the ventricles (fluid-filled areas) of the brain. CSF also circulates around the brain and spinal cord. CSF acts as a cushion for the brain. The build up of CSF may cause the pressure inside the head to increase and the skull bones to expand to a larger-than-normal appearance.
Acid made by the stomach that breaks down proteins in the foods we eat.
A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex which affects metabolism.
Hydrogen Breath Test
A test that measures the amount of hydrogen in the breath and helps diagnose lactose intolerance. If the body is unable to digest lactose properly, it will make excess amounts of hydrogen.
A condition that occurs as a result of urine accumulation in the upper urinary tract. This usually occurs from a blockage somewhere along the urinary tract. The renal pelvis is more enlarged.
A severe, life-threatening problem of severe edema (swelling) in the fetus and newborn. It is also called hydrops fetalis (HF).
Hydrops, prenatal diagnosis of:
Through the use of prenatal ultrasound (examining the fetus using ultrasound imaging before birth) the diagnosis of some birth defects can be detected. With this knowledge, families can seek out information which will allow them to participate more fully in decision making and planning care for their infant. It provides them opportunity to plan for delivery at an institution that is able to care for both mother and baby which avoids the trauma of transport and separation. Hydrops is a severe, life-threatening problem with severe edema (swelling) in the fetus and newborn. It is also known as hydrops fetalis.
Hydrops Fetalis (HF)
A severe, life-threatening problem of severe edema (swelling) in the fetus and newborn. It is also known as hydrops.
Describes a situation in which a body tissue is especially likely to have an exaggerated reaction to a particular situation.
A behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. It is also known as Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
A yellow solution that contains the sugars, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
Too much bilirubin in the bloodstream, due to liver problems. Causes a yellow color of the skin known as jaundice.
High amounts of glucose (sugar) in the blood; diagnosed by blood tests, often done by heel stick; some babies may need insulin to control high glucose levels.
High amounts of potassium in the blood; can be diagnosed by blood test, or by changes in the baby's heart rate pattern.
High amounts of sodium (salt) in the blood.
Blood pressure that is above the normal range. It is also known as high blood pressure.
Enlarged heart muscle that causes impeded blood flow. It is also known as hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH) or idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS).
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy (HOCM)
Enlarged heart muscle that causes impeded blood flow. It is also known as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH) or idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS).
Low calcium levels in the blood; usually treated with calcium in IV fluids.
A condition in which the amount of blood glucose (sugar) is lower than normal; usually treated with IV fluids containing dextrose (another form of sugar).
Caused by underactive parathyroid glands. Underactive parathyroid glands produce too little parathyroid hormones, which, in turn, causes low levels of calcium in the blood stream. The low levels of calcium lead to tetany, an increased excitability of the nerves.
Is a condition that affects the anterior (front) lobe of the pituitary gland - usually resulting in a partial or complete loss of functioning of that lobe. The resulting symptoms depend on which hormones are no longer being produced by the gland. It is also known as an underactive pituitary gland.
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)
A congenital heart defect in which the left side of the heart is poorly developed, resulting in a small mitral valve, left ventricle and aorta.
Treatment of allergy to substances such as pollens, house dust mites, fungi, and stinging insect venom involving giving gradually increasing doses of the substance, or allergen, to which the person is allergic. It is also called allergy shots, desensitization and immunotherapy.
A birth defect in which the male urethral (urine tube) opening is not located at the tip of the penis.
Abnormally low blood pressure.
Located in the brain, at the base of the optic chiasm. The hypothalamus secretes hormones that stimulate or suppress the release of hormones in the pituitary gland, in addition to controlling water balance, sleep, temperature, appetite and blood pressure.
Occurs when the body temperature falls below 95 degrees Fahrenheit. The normal body temperature is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit.
The condition in which the thyroid is underactive and is producing an insufficient amount of thyroid hormones.
Having deficient muscle tone or tension. Hypotonia is treated in the Tone Management and Mobility Program at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin.
Not responding to low flow oxygen therapy.
Abnormal oxygen content in the organs and tissues of the body.
A visual examination of the canal of the cervix and the interior of the uterus using a viewing instrument (hysteroscope) inserted through the vagina.